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Athens insomnia scale

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Athens insomnia scale
Purposemeasure insomnia

In medicine, insomnia is widely measured using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). AIS was first introduced in the year 2000 by a group of researchers[1] from Athens, Greece to assess the insomnia symptoms in patients with sleep disorders.

It is measured by assessing eight factors (as tabulated below) amongst which first five factors are related to nocturnal sleep and last three factors are related to daytime dysfunction. These are rated on a 0–3 scale and the sleep is finally evaluated from the cumulative score of all factors and reported as an individual's sleep outcome. Over the period of time, AIS is considered to be an effective tool in sleep analysis, and it is validated in various countries by testing it on local patients.[2][3][4][5][6][7] A cut-off score of ≥6 on the AIS is used to establish the diagnosis of insomnia.[8]

Sleep factors Athens insomnia scale
Sleep induction 0: No problem 1: Slightly delayed 2: Markedly delayed 3: Very delayed or did not sleep at all
Awakenings during the night 0: No problem 1: Minor problem 2: Considerable problem 3: Serious problem or did not sleep at all
Final awakening 0: Not earlier 1: A little earlier 2: Markedly earlier 3: Much earlier or did not sleep at all
Total sleep duration 0: Sufficient 1: Slightly insufficient 2: Markedly insufficient 3: Very insufficient or did not sleep at all
Sleep quality 0: Satisfactory 1: Slightly unsatisfactory 2: Markedly unsatisfactory 3: Very unsatisfactory or did not sleep at all
Well-being during the day 0: Normal 1: Slightly decreased 2: Markedly decreased 3: Very decreased
Functioning capacity during the day 0: Normal 1: Slightly decreased 2: Markedly decreased 3: Very decreased
Sleepiness during the day 0: None 1: Mild 2: Considerable 3: Intense


  1. ^ Soldatos CR, Dikeos DG, Paparrigopoulos TJ (June 2000). "Athens Insomnia Scale: validation of an instrument based on ICD-10 criteria". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 48 (6): 555–60. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(00)00095-7. PMID 11033374.
  2. ^ Sun JL, Chiou JF, Lin CC (May 2011). "Validation of the Taiwanese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale and assessment of insomnia in Taiwanese cancer patients". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 41 (5): 904–14. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.07.021. PMID 21420272.
  3. ^ Okajima I, Nakajima S, Kobayashi M, Inoue Y (September 2013). "Development and validation of the Japanese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 67 (6): 420–5. doi:10.1111/pcn.12073. PMID 23910517.
  4. ^ Gómez-Benito J, Ruiz C, Guilera G (August 2011). "A Spanish version of the Athens Insomnia Scale". Quality of Life Research. 20 (6): 931–7. doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9827-x. hdl:2445/28442. PMID 21210225.
  5. ^ Paparrigopoulos T, Tzavara C, Theleritis C, Psarros C, Soldatos C, Tountas Y (2010). "Insomnia and its correlates in a representative sample of the Greek population". BMC Public Health. 10: 531. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-531. PMC 2942806. PMID 20815870.
  6. ^ Fornal-Pawłowska M, Wołyńczyk-Gmaj D, Szelenberger W (2011). "Walidacja Ateńskiej Skali Bezsenności" [Validation of the Polish version of the Athens Insomnia Scale] (PDF). Psychiatria Polska (in Polish). 45 (2): 211–21. PMID 21714210.
  7. ^ Kan, K. K. (2008). Validation of the insomnia severity index, athens insomnia scale and sleep quality index in adolescent population in Hong Kong (Thesis). doi:10.5353/th_b4073363.
  8. ^ Soldatos CR, Dikeos DG, Paparrigopoulos TJ (2002). "The diagnostic validity of the Athens Insomnia Scale". J Psychosom Res. 55 (3): 263–7. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00604-9. PMID 12932801.
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Athens insomnia scale
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