Black Indians in the United States

Native American people with significant African American heritage / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Black Indians are Native American people – defined as Native American due to being affiliated with Native American communities and being culturally Native American – who also have significant African American heritage.[3]

Quick facts: Total population, Regions with significant po...
Black Indians (American Indian with African ancestry)
Total population
True population unknown, 269,421 identified as ethnically mixed with African and Native American on 2010 census[1]
Regions with significant populations
United States (especially the Southern United States or in locations populated by Southern descendants), Oklahoma, New York and Massachusetts).
American English, Louisiana French, Louisiana Creole, Gullah, Tutnese, Afro-Seminole Creole, Native American languages
(including Navajo, Dakota, Cherokee, Choctaw, Mvskoke, Ojibwe)[2], African languages
Related ethnic groups

Historically, certain Native American tribes have had close relations with African Americans, especially in regions where slavery was prevalent or where free people of color have historically resided. Members of the Five Civilized Tribes participated in holding enslaved African Americans in the Southeast and some enslaved or formerly enslaved people migrated with them to the West on the Trail of Tears in 1830 and later during the period of Indian Removal.

In controversial actions, since the late 20th century, the Cherokee, Creek and Seminole nations tightened their rules for membership and at times excluded Freedmen who did not have at least one ancestor listed as Native American on the early 20th-century Dawes Rolls. This exclusion was later appealed in the courts, both because of the treaty conditions and in some cases because of possible inaccuracies in some of the Rolls. The Chickasaw Nation never extended citizenship to Chickasaw Freedmen.[4]

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