Human and animal disease / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Brucellosis[4] is a zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.[5] It is also known as undulant fever, Malta fever, and Mediterranean fever.[6]

Quick facts: Brucellosis, Other names, Specialty, Symptoms...
Other namesundulant fever, undulating fever, Mediterranean fever, Malta fever, Cyprus fever, rock fever (Micrococcus melitensis)[1]
SpecialtyInfectious disease
Symptomsfever, chills, loss of appetite, sweats, weakness, fatigue, Joint, muscle and back pain, Headache.[2]
Complicationscentral nervous system infections, inflammation and infection of the spleen and liver, inflammation and infection of the testicles (epididymo-orchitis), Arthritis, Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart chambers (endocarditis).[2]
Diagnostic methodx-rays, computerized tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid culture, echocardiography.[3]
Preventionavoid unpasteurized dairy foods, cook meat thoroughly, wear gloves, take safety precautions in high-risk workplaces, vaccinate domestic animals.[2]
Medicationtetracyclines, rifampicin, aminoglycosides

The bacteria causing this disease, Brucella, are small, Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming, rod-shaped (coccobacilli) bacteria. They function as facultative intracellular parasites, causing chronic disease, which usually persists for life. Four species infect humans: B. abortus, B. canis, B. melitensis, and B. suis. B. abortus is less virulent than B. melitensis and is primarily a disease of cattle. B. canis affects dogs. B. melitensis is the most virulent and invasive species; it usually infects goats and occasionally sheep. B. suis is of intermediate virulence and chiefly infects pigs. Symptoms include profuse sweating and joint and muscle pain. Brucellosis has been recognized in animals and humans since the early 20th century.[7][8]

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