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Family of DNA sequence found in prokaryotic organisms / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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CRISPR (/ˈkrɪspər/) (an acronym for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a family of DNA sequences found in the genomes of prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria and archaea.[2] These sequences are derived from DNA fragments of bacteriophages that had previously infected the prokaryote. They are used to detect and destroy DNA from similar bacteriophages during subsequent infections. Hence these sequences play a key role in the antiviral (i.e. anti-phage) defense system of prokaryotes and provide a form of acquired immunity.[2][3][4][5] CRISPR is found in approximately 50% of sequenced bacterial genomes and nearly 90% of sequenced archaea.[6]

Diagram of the CRISPR prokaryotic antiviral defense mechanism[7]
Quick facts: Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antivi...
Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense)
CRISPR Cascade protein (cyan) bound to CRISPR RNA (green) and phage DNA (red)[1]
OrganismEscherichia coli
RefSeq (Prot)NP_417241.1
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Cas9 (or "CRISPR-associated protein 9") is an enzyme that uses CRISPR sequences as a guide to recognize and cleave specific strands of DNA that are complementary to the CRISPR sequence. Cas9 enzymes together with CRISPR sequences form the basis of a technology known as CRISPR-Cas9 that can be used to edit genes within organisms.[8][9] This editing process has a wide variety of applications including basic biological research, development of biotechnological products, and treatment of diseases.[10][11] The development of the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technique was recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2020 which was awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna.[12][13]

In 2022, in a proceeding at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (interference 106,115), the Patent Trial and Appeal Board decided that the inventor for the US patent covering application of CRISPR-Cas9 in eukaryotic cells is Feng Zhang, a professor of the Broad Institute.[14][not verified in body]