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Closing (real estate)

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Closing (also referred to as completion or settlement) is the final step in executing a real estate transaction.

The closing date is set during the negotiation phase and is usually several weeks after an offer is formally accepted. The closing process officially begins once the seller accepts, signs, and returns your purchase offer (also known as a purchase agreement).[1] On the closing date, ownership of the property is transferred to the buyer. In most jurisdictions, ownership is officially transferred when a deed from the seller is delivered to the buyer. At a high level, the closing typically involves the following parties: the seller, the buyer, real estate agents, lawyers (depending on the state), the mortgage lender, and the title company. Lenders providing a mortgage loan will often require title search, title insurance, appraisal, land survey, and attorneys to be involved.[2]

Several things happen during closing:

  • The buyer and/or their lender deliver a check (generally in the US, a cashier's check or wire transfer) for the balance owed on the purchase price.
  • The seller signs the deed over to the buyer and gives it to the buyer. A recorder's office, which would record the deed, commonly requires the seller's signature to be notarized. If applicable, a mortgage will also be recorded. In jurisdictions that use the Torrens title system, such as New Zealand and Australia, this step involves the lodging of a transfer instrument with the relevant Registrar.
  • Loan documents need final approval from Lender, Home Inspection, and Appraisal to be verified as well.
  • Commonly, the seller delivers possession to the buyer, typically by giving the buyer keys for any buildings or apartments. Unless otherwise specified in the real estate contract, delivery of possession should be at the closing.
  • A title company, lawyer, notary, or the buyer registers the new deed with the local land registry office or recorder's office. A declaration or statement by the buyer or seller regarding the purchase price may have to be filed with the government. Conveyancing taxes and recorder's fees will typically have to be paid, which are part of the closing costs.
  • The seller receives a check or bank transfer for the proceeds of the sale, less closing costs, and mortgage payouts.
  • From the funds allotted for closing costs, prepayments of real estate taxes and insurance may be required, and fees charged by other parties may be paid, such as real estate brokers/agents, title companies, lawyers, etc.

It is common for a transaction to close on one day but possession to occur at a later date. The buyer rents the house back to the seller during the interim. If the clause in the contract is worded improperly, the buyer is liable for damage done by the ‘tenant’. As a rule, addenda and creative clauses should be reviewed by a real estate attorney to ensure compliance with local law and protection for all parties.[3]

In some cases, closing in escrow may occur. In this process, a title company or other trusted party holds the money and the signed deed, and arranges for the transfer---primarily so that the seller can give up ownership, and the buyer can hand over payment, without both parties having to be present at the closing at the same time. Escrow ensures an orderly transaction, or if something goes wrong, an orderly termination of the agreement.[4]

In other cases, a process called settlement takes place on a specified date and time during which all parties (usually including the agents involved) meet at a settlement company which is presided over or supervised by a lawyer or settlement agent. At that time, the settlement agent disburses all funds listed on the settlement statement (in the form of certified or wired funds) and the property conveyance takes place. The deed is then recorded by the settlement company.[5]

A final walkthrough is recommended to ensure the property is in an agreeable condition to close escrow. During this walkthrough, it is important to inspect finished repairs that were requested, outlets, appliances, and air conditioning units among other things.[6]

A reference to completion is in effect the same as closing and takes its name from the contract to convey property having been completed once the balance owed on the purchase price has been paid to the seller and title transferred to the buyer.

See also


  1. ^ "Closing on a House - Process, Mortgage Documents & Procedures". Money Crashers.
  2. ^ "The Closing Process: What Home Buyers Can Expect".
  3. ^ "Best Qualities a Realtor Should Have in 2018 – Gwen G. Chua". Retrieved 2018-06-23.
  4. ^ "What Are Closing Costs On A house". Jane Fischer & Associates. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
  5. ^ "We buy houses baltimore". Thursday, 20 May 2021
  6. ^ "What to Look For in the Final Walkthrough before Closing". Retrieved 2021-10-14.
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Closing (real estate)
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