Data independence

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Data independence is the type of data transparency that matters for a centralized DBMS. It refers to the immunity of user applications to changes made in the definition and organization of data. Application programs should not, ideally, be exposed to details of data representation and storage. The DBMS provides an abstract view of the data that hides such details.

There are two types of data independence: physical and logical data independence.

The data independence and operation independence together gives the feature of data abstraction. There are two levels of data independence.