Duḥkha (/ˈdkə/; Sanskrit: दुःख; Pāli: dukkha), literally "suffering", "pain," or "unhappiness," is an important concept in Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism. Its meaning depends on the context, and may refer more specifically to the "unsatisfactoriness" or "unease" of mundane life when driven by craving and ignorance.[1][2][3][4][note 1]

Quick facts: Translations of Dukha, English, Sanskrit, Pal...
Translations of
Dukha
Englishsuffering, unhappiness, pain, unsatisfactoriness, unease, stress
Sanskritदुःख
(IAST: Duḥkha)
PaliDukkha
Bengaliদুঃখ
(dukkhô)
Burmeseဒုက္ခ
(MLCTS: doʊʔkʰa̰)
Chinese
(Pinyin: )
Japanese
(Rōmaji: ku)
Khmerទុក្ខ
(UNGEGN: tŭkkh; ALA-LC: dukkh)
Korean

(RR: ko)
Sinhalaදුක්ඛ සත්‌යය [si]
(dukkha satyaya)
Tibetanསྡུག་བསྔལ།
(Wylie: sdug bsngal;
THL: dukngal
)
Tamilதுக்கம்
(thukkam)
Tagalogdukha
Thaiทุกข์ [th]
(RTGS: thuk)
Vietnamese
khổ
災害
Bất toại
Glossary of Buddhism
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While the term dukkha has often been derived from the prefix du ("bad" or "difficult") and the root kha, "empty," "hole," a badly fitting axle-hole of a cart or chariot giving "a very bumpy ride,"[5][6] it may actually be derived from duḥ-stha, a "dis-/ bad- + stand-," that is, "standing badly , unsteady," "unstable."[7][8][9][10]

It is the first of the Four Noble Truths and it is one of the three marks of existence. The term also appears in scriptures of Hinduism, such as the Upanishads, in discussions of moksha (spiritual liberation).[11][12]