Duḥkha (//; Sanskrit: दुःख; Pāli: dukkha), literally "suffering", "pain," or "unhappiness," is an important concept in Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism. Its meaning depends on the context, and may refer more specifically to the "unsatisfactoriness" or "unease" of mundane life when driven by craving and ignorance.
|English||suffering, unhappiness, pain, unsatisfactoriness, unease, stress|
(UNGEGN: tŭkkh; ALA-LC: dukkh)
|Sinhala||දුක්ඛ සත්යය [si] |
(Wylie: sdug bsngal;
|Thai||ทุกข์ [th] |
|Glossary of Buddhism|
While the term dukkha has often been derived from the prefix du ("bad" or "difficult") and the root kha, "empty," "hole," a badly fitting axle-hole of a cart or chariot giving "a very bumpy ride," it may actually be derived from duḥ-stha, a "dis-/ bad- + stand-," that is, "standing badly , unsteady," "unstable."
It is the first of the Four Noble Truths and it is one of the three marks of existence. The term also appears in scriptures of Hinduism, such as the Upanishads, in discussions of moksha (spiritual liberation).