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European Coal and Steel Community

Regulator of coal and steel markets, 1952–67 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was a European organization created after World War II to integrate Europe's coal and steel industries into a single common market based on the principle of supranationalism.[2] It was formally established in 1951 by the Treaty of Paris, signed by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The organization's subsequent enlargement of both members and duties ultimately led to the creation of the European Union.

Quick facts: European Coal and Steel Community ...
European Coal and Steel Community
Danish: Europæiske Kul- og Stålfællesskab
Dutch: Europese Gemeenschap voor Kolen en Staal
Finnish: Euroopan hiili- ja teräsyhteisö
French: Communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier
German: Europäische Gemeinschaft für Kohle und Stahl
Greek: Εὐρωπαϊκὴ Κοινότης Ἄνθρακος καὶ Χάλυβος
Italian: Comunità Europea del Carbone e dell'Acciaio
Portuguese: Comunidade Europeia do Carvão e do Aço
Spanish: Comunidad Europea del Carbón y del Acero
Swedish: Europeiska Kol- och Stålgemenskapen
Flag of ECSC
Founding members of the ECSC: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany(Algeria was an integral part of the French Republic)
Founding members of the ECSC:
Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany
(Algeria was an integral part of the French Republic)
StatusInternational organization
CapitalNot applicable²
Common languages
President of the High Authority 
Jean Monnet
René Mayer
Paul Finet
Piero Malvestiti
Rinaldo Del Bo
Historical eraCold War
 Signing (Treaty of Paris)
18 April 1951
 In force
23 July 1952
1 July 1967
23 July 2002¹
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png International Authority for the Ruhr
European Union Flag_of_Europe.svg
Today part ofEuropean Union
  1. The ECSC treaty expired in 2002, fifty years after it came into force,[1] but its institutions were taken over in 1967 following the Merger Treaty.
  2. The political centres were Luxembourg and Strasbourg, later also Brussels.
  3. Initial founding languages, before the merger and subsequent enlargements, were Dutch, French, German and Italian.

The ECSC was first proposed via the Schuman Declaration by French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950 (commemorated in the EU as Europe Day), the day after the fifth anniversary of the end of World War II, to prevent another war between France and Germany. He declared "the solidarity in production" from pooling "coal and steel production" would make war between the two "not only unthinkable but materially impossible".[3] The Treaty created a common market among member states that stipulated free movement of goods (without customs duties or taxes) and prohibited states from introducing unfair competitive or discriminatory practices.[4]

Its terms were enforced by four institutions: a High Authority composed of independent appointees, a Common Assembly composed of national parliamentarians, a Special Council composed of national ministers, and a Court of Justice. These would ultimately form the blueprint for today's European Commission, European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Court of Justice, respectively.

The ECSC set an example for the pan-European organizations created by the Treaty of Rome in 1957: the European Economic Community and European Atomic Energy Community, with whom it shared its membership and some institutions. The 1967 Merger (Brussels) Treaty merged the ECSC's institutions into the European Economic Community, but the former retained its own independent legal personality until the Treaty of Paris expired in 2002, leaving its activities fully absorbed by the European Community under the frameworks of the Treaties of Amsterdam and Nice.