Frederick Douglass

African-American social reformer, writer, and abolitionist (c. 1818–1895) / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, c.February 1817 or 1818[lower-alpha 1] – February 20, 1895) was an American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman. After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, becoming famous for his oratory[5] and incisive antislavery writings. Accordingly, he was described by abolitionists in his time as a living counterexample to enslavers' arguments that enslaved people lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens.[6] Northerners at the time found it hard to believe that such a great orator had once been enslaved. It was in response to this disbelief that Douglass wrote his first autobiography.[7]

Quick facts: Frederick Douglass, United States Minister Re...
Frederick Douglass
Douglass in 1879
United States Minister Resident to Haiti
In office
November 14, 1889  July 30, 1891
Appointed byBenjamin Harrison
Preceded byJohn E. W. Thompson
Succeeded byJohn S. Durham
Personal details
Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey

c.February 1817 or 1818[lower-alpha 1]
Cordova, Maryland, U.S.
DiedFebruary 20, 1895(1895-02-20) (aged 77–78)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Resting placeMount Hope Cemetery
Political partyRepublican
  • Harriet Bailey
  • Aaron Anthony (allegedly)[1]
RelativesDouglass family
OccupationAbolitionist, suffragist, author, editor, diplomat

Douglass wrote three autobiographies, describing his experiences as an enslaved person in his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845), which became a bestseller and was influential in promoting the cause of abolition, as was his second book, My Bondage and My Freedom (1855). Following the Civil War, Douglass was an active campaigner for the rights of freed slaves and wrote his last autobiography, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. First published in 1881 and revised in 1892, three years before his death, the book covers his life up to those dates. Douglass also actively supported women's suffrage, and he held several public offices. Without his permission, Douglass became the first African American nominated for vice president of the United States, as the running mate of Victoria Woodhull on the Equal Rights Party ticket.[8]

Douglass believed in dialogue and in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, as well as in the liberal values of the U.S. Constitution.[9] When radical abolitionists, under the motto "No Union with Slaveholders", criticized Douglass's willingness to engage in dialogue with enslavers, he replied: "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong."[10]