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Capital of Vietnam / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Hanoi or Ha Noi[lower-alpha 1] (Vietnamese: Hà Nội / 河內, lit.'Inside of the Rivers' [haː˨˩ noj˧˨ʔ] (Loudspeaker.svglisten)), often just referred to as The Capital (Vietnamese: Thủ đô), is the capital and second-largest city of Vietnam. It covers an area of 3,359.82 km2 (1,297.2 sq mi).[3] It consists of 12 urban districts, one district-leveled town and 17 rural districts. It is located within the Red River Delta of Northern Vietnam.

Quick facts: Hanoi Hà Nội, Country, Region, Founded, F...
Hà Nội
From top, left to right: Turtle Tower, Pilgrim boats toward Perfume Pagoda, Hanoi Opera House, Đoan Môn gate of Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long, Khuê Văn pavilion at Temple of Literature and skyline of Hanoi in Nam Từ Liêm district.
Official seal of Hanoi
City of Soaring Dragon (Thành phố rồng bay)[1]
The Capital of Millenniums of Civilization (Thủ đô nghìn năm văn hiến)[2]
Hanoi is located in Vietnam
Location within Vietnam
Hanoi is located in Southeast Asia
Location within Southeast Asia
Hanoi is located in Asia
Location within Asia
Coordinates: 21°01′42″N 105°51′15″E
RegionRed River Delta
Founded257 BC
Founded byAn Dương Vương
SeatHoàn Kiếm
Subdivision12 urban districts, 17 rural districts, one district-level town
  BodyHanoi People's Council [vi]
  Secretary of the Party CommitteeĐinh Tiến Dũng
  Chairman of People's CouncilNguyễn Ngọc Tuấn
  Chairman of People's CommitteeTrần Sỹ Thanh
  Capital city and municipality3,359.82 km2 (1,297.23 sq mi)
  Urban319.56 km2 (123.38 sq mi)
  Metro24,314.7 km2 (9,388.0 sq mi)
  Traditional233 km2 (90 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,296 m (4,252 ft)
  Capital city and municipality8,330,800
  Density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
  Urban density13,000/km2 (33,000/sq mi)
  Metro density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Ethnic groups
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (ICT)
Postal code
Area codes24
ISO 3166 codeVN-HN
License plate29 – 33, 40
GRP (Nominal)2019[13]
– TotalUS$42.04 billion[14]
– Per capitaUS$5,196[14]
– GrowthIncrease 7.62%
HDI (2020)0.799 (1st)[15]
International airportsNội Bài International Airport
Largest district by areaBa Vì District (421.80 km2)[16]
Largest district by populationHoàng Mai District (540,732)[17]
Official nameCentral Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long – Hanoi
CriteriaCultural: (ii), (iii), (vi)
Inscription2010 (34th Session)
Area18.395 ha (45.46 acres)
Buffer zone108 ha (270 acres)

Hanoi can trace its history back to the third century BCE, when a portion of the modern-day city served as the capital of the historic Vietnamese nation of Âu Lạc. Following the collapse of Âu Lạc, the city was part of Han China. In 1010, Vietnamese emperor Lý Thái Tổ established the capital of the imperial Vietnamese nation Đại Việt in modern-day central Hanoi, naming the city Thăng Long (literally 'Ascending Dragon'). Thăng Long remained Đại Việt's political centre until 1802, when the Nguyễn dynasty, the last imperial Vietnamese dynasty, moved the capital to Huế. The city was renamed Hanoi in 1831, and served as the capital of French Indochina from 1902 to 1945. On 6 January 1946, the National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam designated Hanoi as the capital of the newly independent country, which would last during the First Indochina War (1946–1954) and the Vietnam War (1955–1975). Hanoi has been the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam since 1976.

A major tourist destination in Vietnam, Hanoi offers well-preserved French colonial architecture, religious sites dedicated to Buddhism, Catholicism, Confucianism and Taoism, several historical landmarks of Vietnamese imperial periods, and a large number of museums. The Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long in Ba Dinh District was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2010.

Hanoi has a high Human Development Index of 0.799, top amongst all the municipalities and provinces of Vietnam.[18] The city hosts various venerable educational institutions and cultural venues of significance, including the Vietnam National University, the Mỹ Đình National Stadium, and the Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts. Hanoi was the only Asia-Pacific locality to be granted the "City for Peace" title by the UNESCO on 16 July 1999, recognizing its contributions to the struggle for peace, its efforts to promote equality in the community, protect the environment, promote culture and education, and care for younger generations. Hanoi joined UNESCO's Network of Creative Cities as a Design City on 31 October 2019, on the occasion of World Cities' Day.[19] The city has also hosted numerous political and international events, including APEC Vietnam 2006, 132nd Assembly of the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU-132), 2019 North Korea–United States Hanoi Summit, as well as 2009 Asian Indoor Games, and the Southeast Asian Games in 2003 and 2021.