Hendrik Lorentz

Dutch physicist (1853–1928) / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (/ˈlɒrənts/; 18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He derived the Lorentz transformation of the special theory of relativity, as well as the Lorentz force, which describes the combined electric and magnetic forces acting on a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. Lorentz was also responsible for the Lorentz oscillator model, a classical model used to describe the anomalous dispersion observed in dielectric materials when the driving frequency of the electric field was near the resonant frequency, resulting in abnormal refractive indices.

Quick facts: Hendrik Lorentz, Born, Died, Alma mater,...
Hendrik Lorentz
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Lorentz in 1902
Born
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz

(1853-07-18)18 July 1853
Arnhem, Netherlands
Died4 February 1928(1928-02-04) (aged 74)
Haarlem, Netherlands
Alma materUniversity of Leiden
Known for
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics
InstitutionsUniversity of Leiden
Doctoral advisorPieter Rijke
Doctoral students
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Hendrik_Antoon_Lorentz%2C_in_1916_geschilderd_door_Menso_Kamelingh_Onnes.jpg
Painting of Hendrik Lorentz by Menso Kamerlingh Onnes, 1916
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Portrait by Jan Veth
H._A._Lorentz_-_Lorentz_force%2C_div_E_%3D_%CF%81%2C_div_B_%3D_0_-_La_th%C3%A9orie_electromagn%C3%A9tique_de_Maxwell_et_son_application_aux_corps_mouvants%2C_Archives_n%C3%A9erlandaises%2C_1892_-_p_451_-_Eq._I%2C_II%2C_III.png
Lorentz' theory of electrons. Formulas for the Lorentz force (I) and the Maxwell equations for the divergence of the electrical field E (II) and the magnetic field B (III), La théorie electromagnétique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants, 1892, p. 451. V is the velocity of light.
H._A._Lorentz_-_rot_B%2C_rot_E_-_La_th%C3%A9orie_electromagn%C3%A9tique_de_Maxwell_et_son_application_aux_corps_mouvants%2C_Archives_n%C3%A9erlandaises%2C_1892_-_p_452_-_Eq._IV_%26_V.png
Lorentz' theory of electrons. Formulas for the curl of the magnetic field (IV) and the electrical field E (V), La théorie electromagnétique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants, 1892, p. 452

According to the biography published by the Nobel Foundation, "It may well be said that Lorentz was regarded by all theoretical physicists as the world's leading spirit, who completed what was left unfinished by his predecessors and prepared the ground for the fruitful reception of the new ideas based on the quantum theory."[2] He received many other honours and distinctions, including a term as chairman of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation,[3] the forerunner of UNESCO, between 1925 and 1928.

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