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The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the Asian Exclusion Act and National Origins Act (Pub.L. 68–139, 43 Stat. 153, enacted May 26, 1924), was a United States federal law that prevented immigration from Asia and set quotas on the number of immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere. Additionally, the formation of the U.S. Border Patrol was authorized by the act.

Quick facts: Long title, Nicknames, Enacted by, Effec...
Immigration Act of 1924
Long titleAn Act to the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States, and for other purposes.
NicknamesJohnson-Reed Act
Enacted bythe 68th United States Congress
EffectiveMay 26, 1924
Public lawPub.L. 68–139
Statutes at Large43 Stat. 153
Legislative history
  • Introduced in the House of Representatives as H.R. 7995
  • Passed the House on April 12, 1924 (323-71)
  • Agreed to by the House on May 15, 1924 (308-62) and by the Senate on May 15, 1924 (69-9)
  • Signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge on May 24, 1924

The 1924 act supplanted earlier acts to effectively ban all emigration from Asia[1] and set a total immigration quota of 165,000 for countries outside the Western Hemisphere, an 80% reduction from the average before World War I. As a temporary measure, taking effect in fiscal year 1925, quota limits per country were reduced from those established by 1921's Emergency Quota Act (3% of a country's foreign-born population present in the U.S. in the 1910 census), to 2% of the foreign-born population recorded in the 1890 census.[1] A new quota took effect in 1927, based on each nationality's share of the total U.S. population in the 1920 census, a system which would govern American immigration policy from 1929 until 1965.[2][3][4] According to the U.S. Department of State's Office of the Historian, the purpose of the act was "to preserve the ideal of U.S. homogeneity."[1] Congressional opposition was minimal.

The act's provisions were revised in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and replaced by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.