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Indigenous peoples of northern North America / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Inuit (/ˈɪnjuɪt/; Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, ᐃᓄᒃ, dual: Inuuk, ᐃᓅᒃ; Iñupiaq: Iñuit 'the people'; Greenlandic: Inuit)[5][6][7] are a group of culturally and historically similar Indigenous peoples traditionally inhabiting the Arctic and subarctic regions of North America, including Greenland, Labrador, Quebec, Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, Yukon (traditionally[lower-alpha 1]), Alaska, and Chukotsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia. Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo–Aleut languages, also known as Inuit-Yupik-Unangan, and also as Eskaleut.[8] Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut.[9]

Quick facts: Total population, Regions with significant po...
Iglulingmiut Inuit women and child in traditional parkas (1999)
Total population
Regions with significant populations
Canada70,540 (2021)[1]
Greenland51,479 (2023)[2]
United States16,581 (2010)[3]
Denmark17,067 (2023)
Related ethnic groups
Quick facts: Inu- ᐃᓄ- / nuna ᓄᓇ "person" / "land", Person,...
Inu- ᐃᓄ- / nuna ᓄᓇ
"person" / "land"
PersonInuk ᐃᓄᒃ
Dual: Inuuk ᐃᓅᒃ
PeopleInuit ᐃᓄᐃᑦ
LanguageInuit languages
CountryChukotsky District
Inuit Nunangat / ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᑦ
(Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut)

Canadian Inuit live throughout most of Northern Canada in the territory of Nunavut, Nunavik in the northern third of Quebec, Nunatsiavut and NunatuKavut in Labrador, and in various parts of the Northwest Territories and Yukon (traditionally), particularly around the Arctic Ocean, in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.[lower-alpha 1] With the exception of NunatuKavut, these areas are known, primarily by Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, as Inuit Nunangat.[10][11] In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classify Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis.[12][13]

Greenlandic Inuit, also known as Kalaallit, are descendants of Thule migrations from Canada by 1100 CE.[14] Although Greenland withdrew from the European Communities in 1985, Inuit of Greenland are Danish citizens and, as such, remain citizens of the European Union.[15][16][17] In the United States, the Alaskan Iñupiat are traditionally located in the Northwest Arctic Borough, on the Alaska North Slope, the Bering Strait and on Little Diomede Island. In Russia, few pockets of diaspora communities of Russian Iñupiat from Big Diomede Island, of which inhabitants were removed to Russian Mainland, remain in Bering Strait coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, particularly in Uelen, Lavrentiya, and Lorino.

Many individuals who would have historically been referred to as Eskimo find that term offensive or forced upon them in a colonial way; Inuit is now a common autonym for a large sub-group of these people.[18][19][20][21] The word Inuit (varying forms Iñupiat, Inuvialuit, Inughuit, etc.), however, is an ancient self-referential to a group of peoples which includes at most the Iñupiat of Bering Strait coast of Chukotka and northern Alaska, the four broad groups of Inuit in Canada, and the Greenlandic Inuit. This usage has long been employed to the exclusion of other, closely related groups (e.g. Yupik, Aleut).[22][23][24][25] Therefore, the Aleut (Unangan) and Yupik peoples (Alutiiq/Sugpiaq, Central Yup'ik, Siberian Yupik), who live in Alaska and Siberia, at least at an individual and local level, generally do not self-identify as Inuit.[22][better source needed]

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