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Iranian National Ballet Company

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Iranian National Ballet Company
سازمان باله ملی ایران
General information
NameIranian National Ballet Company
سازمان باله ملی ایران
SuccessorLes Ballets Persans
Persian: سازمان باله ایران
Year founded1958
FounderNejad Ahmadzadeh
Founding choreographersWilliam Dollar
Principal venueRoudaki Hall Opera
WebsiteBalletsPersans.org
Senior staff
Assistant DirectorHaideh Ahmadzadeh
Artistic staff
Artistic Director
  • Nejad Ahmadzadeh
    (1958–1976)
  • Ali Pourfarrokh
    (1976–1979)
Resident Choreographers
Other
Sister companyNational and Folk Music, Song and Dance Ensemble
OrchestraTehran Symphony Orchestra
Official schoolNational Ballet Academy of Iran
Formation
  • Principal Dancer
  • First Soloist
  • Second Soloist
  • Corps de Ballet
  • Apprentice

The Iranian National Ballet Company (Persian: سازمان باله ملی ایران‎) was Iran's only state ballet institution until the Islamic revolution of 1979 and also the most known and recognized of all dance companies in the Middle East. It was founded in 1958 by the Iranian Ministry of Culture and existed during 21 years (1958–1979). The company, residing at Tehran's Roudaki Hall, was disbanded in the aftermath of the Islamic revolution and was re-established 23 years later in exile by Nima Kiann under the name of Les Ballets Persans (Persian: سازمان باله ایران‎) in Sweden.[1][2]

History

Introduction of ballet in Iran

Madame Yelena's ballet class in Tehran. 1949
Madame Yelena's ballet class in Tehran. 1949

The history of ballet in Iran started in 1928 when Madame Cornelli, a Russian immigrant who fled the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, started giving dance lessons in Tehran. There was no methodical ballet training; the classes consisted of various exercises to make the body supple and to cultivate the students' awareness of rhythm and musicality. Part of each class was devoted to character or folk dances.[3] A later dance teacher was Madame Yelena (Avedisian),[4] and Sarkis Djanbazian who respectively in 1933 and 1938 organized dance classes in the city of Tabriz and Qazvin. These newcomers expanded the European influenced dance scene in Iran by holding performances and dance classes of various style, including classical ballet, European folk dancing, the European partner dancing, etc.

Iran’s pioneering ballet company

In the early 1940s Nilla Cram Cook, who had vast knowledge in Eastern cultures and languages, was serving as the United States cultural attaché at the American Embassy in Tehran. During her time as the US culturаl attaché she became employed at the Ministry of Education and Propaganda, as director general of the Arts Department. Her endeavors and great interest in Persian culture, arts and literature resulted in the realization of the most extensive Iranian national dance project of the first half of the twentieth century. In 1946, Cram Cook founded the Studio of the Revival of the Iranian Ancient Arts (in Persian: استودیوی احیای هنرهای باستانی ایران‎), aiming to revive and restore the “forgotten” ancient Iranian performing arts. Most of the dances were based on Persian history or mythology. An important work by Cram Cook, The Caravan, was developed from a poem by Saadi and was later performed in 1958 by the Iranian National Ballet.[5] The dance troupe performed at functions at the American Embassy in Tehran and toured nationally and internationally, remaining active until around 1953.

The Times newspaper review of the newly built Roudaki Hall Opera. 7 February 1968
The Times newspaper review of the newly built Roudaki Hall Opera. 7 February 1968

Establishment of the national ballet company

In 1955, Mehrdad Pahlbod, the head of the Fine Arts department commissioned Nejad and Haideh Ahmadzadeh to start a ballet school on a professional basis aiming to raise native Iranian ballet dancers for a future national ballet company. The School was opened in 1956 in the premises of Tehran's Conservatory of Music. Two years later in 1958, the Iranian National Ballet Company was established with Nejad Ahmadzadeh as its founding director. When the Fine Arts Department of Iran eventually expanded and became The Ministry of Culture and Arts, Nejad Ahmadzadeh was appointed as director of the ballet academy, the ballet company and the National and Folk Music, Song and Dance Ensemble which was a sister company to the Iranian National Ballet Company using the same dancers to create and stage a nationally inspired repertoire.[6]

Robert de Warren and Haideh Ahmadzadeh conversating with the Shah and Empress Farah at the Roudaki Hall Opera. 1967
Robert de Warren and Haideh Ahmadzadeh conversating with the Shah and Empress Farah at the Roudaki Hall Opera. 1967
Dame Ninette de Valois (far right) on one of her visits to Tehran at a cocktail party with Nejad Ahmadzadeh, Sandra Vane (centre) and Haideh Ahmadzadeh. 1962
Dame Ninette de Valois (far right) on one of her visits to Tehran at a cocktail party with Nejad Ahmadzadeh, Sandra Vane (centre) and Haideh Ahmadzadeh. 1962

As institutionalizing ballet and bringing about a professional national ballet ensemble comparable to the ballet companies in the West had become a serious concern for the government, the Iranian monarch Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi had personally asked Dame Ninette de Valois to council on the formation of a ballet company during one of his official visits to London and after a command performance in his honor at the Royal Opera House. In the summer of 1958, Dame Ninette de Valois was visiting Turkey where she had founded a ballet school. On the invitation of the Ministry of Culture and Arts, she prolonged her trip in order to visit the National Ballet Academy of Iran and budding company in Tehran. On her return to London, she sent Ann Cox followed by Miro Michael Zolan and his wife Sandra Vane. Later Nicholas Beriozoff, Marion English-Delanian, Richard Brown and finally Robert and Jacqueline de Warren were sent by de Valois to teach and stage dances and short ballets for the ballet academy and company.

The Iranian National Ballet Company developed to become the most renowned Iranian cultural institution during its tenure as the country's only ballet institution. Company productions were often performed at official events and functions in the presence of the Royal family and invited national and international dignitaries.[7] The company moved to the Roudaki Hall Opera upon its completion in 1967.[8]

Repertoire

Iranian National Ballet Company performing Carmina Burana. 1978
Iranian National Ballet Company performing Carmina Burana. 1978

The company repertoire included classical, neoclassical and contemporary ballets which were staged usually by invited guest choreographers and ballet masters from Europe and the United States. The company established a close collaboration with dance institutions in Soviet Union, United States and Europe. The Royal Ballet, Royal Academy of Dance, Bolshoi Ballet, American Ballet Theatre were parts of a vast exchanging cultural program between the companies.

Some early works of the company were those choreographed by Nilla Cram Cook for the Revival of the Iranian Ancient Arts Ensemble which were restaged by Cram Cook's former dancers, Nejad and Haideh Ahmadzadeh.[7] Prominent and world-famous ballet dancers from renowned ballet companies of the world were often invited to dance the principal roles of all great classical ballets. In order to keep the high standard of the productions the company relied on guest artists from abroad to perform the leading roles in most work premieres.[8]

List of Iranian National Ballet Company productions

Year / Season Work Composer Chore / Staged by Principal dancers
1958 The Caravan Unknown Nilla Cram Cook / Haideh Ahmadzadeh
1961 The Classical Première Gluck Miro Zolan
1961 1+2=4 Ravel Miro Zolan Avak Abrahamian
1961 Don Quixote Pas de deux Minkus Miro Zolan Haideh Ahmadzadeh & Miro Zolan
1961 Rossiniada Rossini Miro Zolan
1961 Fiesta Kabalevsky Sandra Vane / Miro Zolan
1962 Libestraum Strauss Miro Zolan
1962 The Entertainers Miro Zolan
1963 The Nutcracker Pas de deux Tchaikovsky Marius Petipa / Miro Zolan Haideh Ahmadzadeh & Leon Neshanian
1963 Comedie a la Francaise Ibert Richard Brown
1963 Slaughter on Tenth Avenue Rogers George Balanchine / Richard Brown Clara Avanessian
1964 La Péri Paul Dukas Ivan Clustine / Robert de Warren Haideh Ahmadzadeh & Leon Neshanian
1965 Love and the Clown Verdi John Cranko / Robert de Warren Haideh Ahmadzadeh, Avak Abrahamian, Jamshid Saghabashi
1966 Games Ahmad Pejman Robert de Warren
1966 La Valse Ravel Robert de Warren
1966 Symphony in C Bizet Robert de Warren
1966 Tchaikovsky Suite Tchaikovsky Robert de Warren
1967 Lady of the Camellias / Robert de Warren
1967 The Firebird Stravinsky Michel Fokine / Robert de Warren
1968 Phaedra Auric / Robert de Warren Haideh Ahmadzadeh & Robert de Warren
1968-69 Romeo and Juliet Prokofiev John Cranko / Robert de Warren Sarvar Kaboli & Amin Taati
1968-69 Cinderella Prokofiev / Robert de Warren Sarvar Kaboli & Amin Taati
1969-70 The Sleeping Beauty Tchaikovsky Marius Petipa / Robert de Warren Lucette Aldous & Robert Bestonso [a]
1970-71 Giselle Adolphe Adam Jean Coralli & Jules Perrot / Anne Heaton Adele Oroz & Viktor Rohna, [b] Haideh Ahmadzadeh & Jamshid Saghabashi
1971 - Autumn The Myth of Creation [c] Melik Aslanian Robert Thomas
1971-72 Coppélia Léo Delibes Arthur Saint-Léon / Anne Heaton Philippa Caire & Amin Taati, Haydeh Changizian & Jamshid Saghabashi
1971-72 Swan Lake Tchaikovsky Marius Petipa / Vakhtang Chabukiani
1971-72 The Nutcracker Tchaikovsky Marius Petipa / Jack Carter Carol Grant & Jamshid Saghabashi, Haydeh Changizian & Amin Taati
1972-73 Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen Gustav Mahler Robert Thomas Haydeh Changizian & Amin Taati / Marion English Delanian & Robert Thomas
1972-73 La Bayadère Ludwig Minkus Marius Petipa / Natalie Conus[e] Malika Sabirova & Mozaffar Burkhanov[f] /Haydeh Changizian & Amin Taati, Haideh Ahmadzadeh in role of Gamzatti
1972-73 Unfinished Symphony (Pas de quatre) Franz Schubert Madjid Kashef Haydeh Changizian & Riccardo Duse
1973-74 Fountain of Bakhchisarai Boris Asafyev Rostislav Zakharov / Natalie Conus Raisa Strouchkova & Nikolai Fadeyechev ,[g] Maggie Burton Saghabashi & Amin Taati, Haydeh Changizian, Avak Abrahamian
1973-74 La Fille Mal Gardée Peter Ludwig Hertel Dimitri Romanoff Haydeh Changizian & Amin Taati, Haideh Ahmadzadeh as Widow Simone
1973-74 Boléro Maurice Ravel Madame Tilda from Romania
1973-74 Petrushka Igor Stravinsky Michel Fokine / Madame Tilda from Romania Jamshid Saghabashi
1973-74 Sinfonietta Leoš Janáček Miro Zolan Haydeh Changizian
1973-74 Jigsaw Boris Blacher Miro Zolan Haydeh Changizian
1973-74 The Scarecrow Benjamin Britten Miro Zolan Marion English Delanian & Avak Abrahamian
1973-74 The Witch Boy Leonard Salzedo Jack Carter Haydeh Changizian & Jamshid Saghabashi
1975-76 Les Sylphides Frédéric Chopin Michel Fokine / Anne Heaton
1975-76 Schéhérazade Rimsky-Korsakov Michel Fokine / Anne Heaton (ballet dancer)|Anne Heaton Haydeh Changizian as Zobeide,

Jamshid Saghabashi as the golden slave, Avak Abrahamian as Kalif

1975-76 Bijan and Manijeh[h] Hossein Dehlavi Haideh Ahmadzadeh & Robert Urazgildiev Haydeh Changizian & Jamshid Saghabashi
1976-77 Serenade Tchaikovsky George Balanchine / Patricia Neary Janet Popeleski & Michael Dane
1976-77 Miss Julie Rangström Birgit Cullberg Janet Popeleski & Chinko Rafique
1976-77 Graduation Ball Johann Strauss II / Nicholas Beriosoff Maggie Burton Saghabashi & Chinko Rafique
1976-77 Swan Lake Tchaikovsky Marius Petipa & Lev Ivanov / Nicholas Beriosoff Maggie Burton Saghabashi & Jamshid Sahabashi, Janet Popeleski
1977-78 Romeo and Juliet Prokofiev / Nicholas Beriosoff Janet Popeleski & Robert Craset / Nina Brzorad and Jamshid Saghabashi
1977-78 The Nutcracker Tchaikovsky Marius Petipa / Nicholas Beriosoff Janet Popeleski & Robert Craset / Nina Brzorad and Jamshid Saghabashi
1977-78 Carmina Burana Carl Orff John Butler Janet Popeleski, Nina Brzorad, Robert Craset, Jamshid Saghabashi
1977-78 After Eden Holby John Butler Janet Popeleski & Robert Crazet / Nina Brzorad and Jamshid Saghabashi
1977-78 Polovetsian Dances Borodin / Nicholas Beriosoff
1978-79 Sleeping Beauty Tchaikovsky Marius Petipa / Nicholas Beriosoff Nina Brzorad, Patricia Rensetti, Jamshid Saghabashi
  1. ^ from Royal Ballet
  2. ^ from Budapest Opera Ballet followed by Irina Prokofyeva & Andrei Kondratoff from Bolshoi Ballet
  3. ^ on the occasion of the 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire
  4. ^ followed by Mette Höningen & Pale Jacobson from Royal Danish Ballet
  5. ^ from Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow, even known as Natalia Konus
  6. ^ soloists of Bolshoi Ballet from Tajik origin
  7. ^ from Bolshoi Ballet
  8. ^ The company’s first full-length classical ballet production based on Shahnameh of Ferdowsi

Artistic staff

Birgit Cullberg (right) rehearsing Miss Julie with dancers of the Iranian National Ballet Company. Ali Pourfarrokh on the left. 1977
Birgit Cullberg (right) rehearsing Miss Julie with dancers of the Iranian National Ballet Company. Ali Pourfarrokh on the left. 1977

The Iranian National Ballet Company started operating in 1958 with a dozen of dancers. The company grew to approximately 50 dancers, one third of them Iranian natives. The rest of the company members came mostly from Europe and the United States.[7][9][10][11]

Artistic directors

  • Nejad Ahmadzadeh (1958–1976)
  • Ali Pourfarrokh (1976–1979)

Principal choreographers

  • William Dollar (1958–1960)
  • Miro Zolan (1961–1963)
  • Richard Brown (1963–1964)
  • Jack Carter (1971)
  • Anne Heaton (1973)
  • Haideh Ahmadzadeh
  • Robert Urazgildiev (1975)
  • Birgit Cullberg (1975)
  • Nicholas Beriosoff (1976–1979)
  • John Butler

Ballet masters and mistresses

  • William Dollar
  • Miro Zolan
  • Sandra Vane
  • Yvonne Patterson (1959–1960)
  • Marian English Delanian (1960 -1979)
  • Robert de Warren (1965-1970)
  • Jacqueline de Warren (1965–1970)
  • Dudley Davies (1977–1979)
  • Kenneth Mason (1976-1979)

Dancers

  1. Ayda Abolian
  2. Avak Abrahamian (Salmasi) (? - 1979)
  3. Valerik Abrahamian (? - 1979)
  4. Ahmad Adjdadi
  5. Adeleh Afrand
  6. Haideh Ahmadzadeh (1958–1975)
  7. Parvin Al-Amin
  8. Ronald K. Alexander
  9. Anne Allen (1978–1979)
  10. Jeremy Allen (1976 - 1979)
  11. Avisa Amirshahi
  12. Jenous Amirshahi
  13. Mary Apick
  14. Ahita Ardalan
  15. Azita Arfa
  16. Wendy Arshamian (? - 1979)
  17. Minoo Atabaki
  18. Clara Avanessian
  19. Ophelia Azarnia
  20. Banafsheh Bahramian
  21. Georgina Bahramian Coleman (? - 1979)
  22. Nejdeh Bahramian (? - 1979)
  23. James Bailey (1977–1978)
  24. Evelyn Balassanian (? - 1979)
  25. Mitra Behrouz
  26. Diana Biggart
  27. Nina Brzorad (1976–1979)
  28. Pippa Buck Power
  29. Aban Budin
  30. Margaret Bull
  31. Judyth Casey
  32. Haydeh Changizian (1972–1978)
  33. Tina Christina
  34. Robert Craset (1977–1979)
  35. Michael Dane
  36. Belinda (Lindy) Davies (? - 1979)
  37. Rosamund Davies
  38. Otis Daye (1977–1978)
  39. Rostam Dehmohbed
  40. Missy Denman (? - 1978)
  41. Yerjanik Djambazian
  42. Mehdi Doagoo
  43. Gavin Dorrian (1978–1979)
  44. Tomas Edwards (Martini) (? - 1978)
  45. Magdy El-Lethy (? - 1979)
  46. Jonathan Ellingham (1977–1979)
  47. Bahman Sadr Erfan
  48. Hilda Estepanian
  49. Fereshteh Fakoor
  50. Fereshteh Farazmand
  51. Ivan Ionathan Feller
  52. Martin Fredmann
  53. Parviz Ghanei (? - 1979)
  54. Farihan (Fari) Gheissari Akbarian
  55. Diane Gray (? - 1979)
  56. Michael Hall
  57. Mark Hammond (1977–1978)
  58. Mary Heathcote
  59. Caroline Heming (1977 - 1978)
  60. Dariush Hirbodian
  61. Behrooz Honarbakhsh
  62. Sarah Inglis Fricker (1970-1974)
  63. David Jackson (1976 - 1978)
  64. Nader Jahanfard
  65. Sarvar (Sorur) Kaboli
  66. Nina Kavosi
  67. Nasser Kazemi
  68. Sudabeh Keshmirian
  69. Sholeh Katherina Kia
  70. Shideh Kia Nikkhoo (? - 1979)
  71. Ladan Kianpoor
  72. Jeremy Macdonald (1977–1978)
  73. Osama Maksood (1978–1979)
  74. Robert March (1976–1977)
  75. Debbie McGee (1978–1979)
  76. Sam McManus
  77. Terri Mills Tester
  78. Frieda Minassian
  79. Golriz Mirjahangiri
  80. Nader Mirzadeh
  81. Rima Moghadam
  82. Farnoosh Moshiri
  83. Abdollah Nazemi
  84. Leon Neshanian
  85. Jaleh Nikpay
  86. Judith (Judy) Odell (1976 - 1978)
  87. Karen Oram
  88. Gita Ostovani
  89. Gregory Pope (1977–1978)
  90. Mary Paranicas (1977–1978)
  91. Janet Popeleski (1976 - 1978)
  92. Virginia (Ginny) Portz
  93. Tibor Pusztai - Conductor
  94. Mina Rad
  95. Chinko Rafique (? - 1977)
  96. Jaleh Rahbar
  97. Soheyla Razavi (? - 1979)
  98. Patricia Renzetti (1978–1979)
  99. Helen Riddington (1976 - 1978)
  100. Amanda Rivera Bruell (?-1978)
  101. Vivien Rycroft Richards (? - 1979)
  102. Soheila Sadr
  103. Jamshid Saghabashi (1958–1979)
  104. Fereydoon Saghabashi Tork
  105. Maggie (Burton) Saghabashi (? - 1979)
  106. Pari Samar
  107. Bahareh Sardari (? - 1979)
  108. John (Jay) Seaman (1977–1979)
  109. Susan Sepehran
  110. Roberta Senn Minto (1977–1978)
  111. Karen Smith (1977–1978)
  112. Azar Snider
  113. Sacha Spencer-Moore
  114. Diane Spinelli
  115. Clair Symonds Josephs
  116. Amin Taati
  117. Mersedeh Tahvildari
  118. Mary Tarverdian
  119. Kent Taylor (1978)
  120. Peggy Tehran
  121. Catherine Terzian
  122. Mark Thibodeau (1977–1978)
  123. Peter Towse (? - 1978)
  124. Behrooz Vasseghi (? - 1978)
  125. Samuel Veal (1976 - 1978)
  126. Ali Aschar Vil
  127. Bethan Wiliams (1977–1978)
  128. Trevor Wood
  129. Wendy Woodbridge (1977–1978)
  130. Jennifer (Jenny) Wyatt (1974–1979)
  131. Nazila Zand-Karimi
  132. Vazgen Zarokian
  133. Pejman Parhami (1975-1977)

Disbanding of the company

Iranian National Ballet Company's production of Sleeping Beauty. 1978
Iranian National Ballet Company's production of Sleeping Beauty. 1978

The civil unrest and political upheavals that caused the collapse of the Monarchy and establishment of a theocracy in Iran started in 1978 and was escalating rapidly. The last ballet production that was staged at the Roudaki Hall Opera was Sleeping Beauty during the fall season of 1978. By December 1978 and January 1979 the political situation of the country became more and more unstable. Almost all foreign members of the company left Iran during this period as soon as there was a flight available, before the complete collapse of the regime in February 1979. Employed dancers were informed that there were dismissed till the new government's further notice. Eventually, a meeting was arranged in Bāgh-e Manzariyeh in northern Tehran soon after the victorious revolution in the presence of Roudaki Hall's workforce and Ayatollah Mohammad Mofatteh. When he was asked about the fate of ballet in Iran, he replied irately and in no uncertain terms that Islamic Republic and ballet is paradoxical and self-contradictory. The Iranian National Ballet Company was thereafter formally declared as dissolved in 1979.[12]

Revival of the Iranian National Ballet Company in Les Ballets Persans

Twenty-three years after disbanding of the Iranian National Ballet, the Swedish-Iranian dancer, and choreographer Nima Kiann created a new company in Stockholm, Sweden[11] with the support of the Swedish authorities. Inspired by Les Ballets Russes and Ballets suédois as exiled dance companies representing vastly the culture of their countries, he named the company Les Ballets Persans (Persian: سازمان باله ایران‎).[13][14] The company repertory is entirely based on the Persian culture and heritage and does not include any works of the Western repertoire unless they are created based on Persian heritage. The project of revival of the Iranian National Ballet Company made an international impact and was regarded as the most extensive individual artistic project ever realized outside of Iran.

Notes

  • On the 35th anniversary of disbanding of the company, on August 29, 2014, around forty former members of the Iranian National Ballet, including Nejad and Haideh Ahmadzadeh and Ali Pourfarrokh, gathered together in Washington DC to celebrate and share the accomplishments of the company. This was the first reunion of company members after leaving Tehran thirty-five years ago. In a message sent to this reunion, Nima Kiann the founder of Les Ballets Persans, the successor company of the Iranian National Ballet, wrote: ...On behalf of the new generation of Iranian ballet artists, I salute all attending and even absent members of the company this evening. Your collective accomplishment of the past time is today’s fundament on which this new generation is standing on. It is a reason of pride for the new and future generations of Iranians and a reminder of a passed time of development and progress for the art form of dance in Iran.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Official website of Les Ballets Persans (The New Iranian National Ballet)
  2. ^ Chronology of the Iranian National Ballet and Les Ballets Persans
  3. ^ From book: My Life as a Persian Ballerina by Haideh Ahmadzadeh, p. 5
  4. ^ Kiann, Nima (2000). Madame Yelena Avedisian. Eastern Dance Forum Archived 2014-12-03 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 2 Dec. 2014)
  5. ^ From book: My Life as a Persian Ballerina by Haideh Ahmadzadeh; p. 21
  6. ^ Ahmadzadeh, Haideh (2009). My life as a Persian Ballerina. Raleigh, NC: Lulu Enterprises Inc.
  7. ^ a b c Kiann, Nima. "Persian Dance and Its Forgotten History". Eastern Dance Forum. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  8. ^ a b Kiann, Nima (2015). History of Ballet in Iran. Wiesbaden: Reichert Publishing
  9. ^ Community page of the Iranian National Ballets Company at Facebook. List of former members
  10. ^ Community page of the Iranian National Ballets Company at Facebook. Timeline
  11. ^ a b Craine, Debra & Mackrell, Judith (2000). "Oxford Dictionary of Dance." New York: Oxford University Press
  12. ^ Koegler, Horst (1987). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Ballet. New York: Oxford University Press
  13. ^ ’’Les Ballets Persans.’’ (2002). World Premiere souvenir program booklet. Stockholm: LBP Publications
  14. ^ Patriot med mödosam mission. [Patriot with an arduous mission]. Article and interview in Göteborgs-Posten newspaper. 2000-01-26
  15. ^ Nima Kiann’s message to the reunion. August 29, 2014
Bibliography
  • Craine, Debra (2009). The Ballets Russes and the Art of Design. New York: The Monacelli Press.
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