The Judeo-Iranian languages (or dialects) are a number of related Jewish variants of Iranian languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire. Judeo-Iranian dialects are generally conservative in comparison with those of their Muslim neighbours. Judeo-Shirazi, for example, remains close to the language of Hafez.
Like most Jewish languages, all the Judeo-Iranian languages contain great numbers of Hebrew loanwords, and are written using variations of the Hebrew alphabet. Another name used for some Judeo-Iranian dialects is Latorayi, sometimes interpreted by folk etymology as "not [the language] of the Torah". This refers to a form of the language in which the number of Hebrew and Aramaic loanwords is deliberately maximised to allow it to function as a secret code. In general, however, the number of such loanwords is small compared with that in other Jewish languages such as Yiddish or Judaeo-Spanish.
The languages include:
- Dzhidi (literary Judeo-Persian)
- Luterā'i (a secret language combining an Aramaic and Hebrew vocabulary with Persian conjunctions and grammatical morphemes)
- Bukhori (Judeo-Bukharic, Judeo-Tajik, the Jewish language of the distinctive Jewish community centered in Bukhara)
- Judeo-Golpaygani (the Judeo-Persian language traditionally spoken in the environs of Gulpaigan and western Isfahan Province, Iran)
- Judeo-Yazdi = Judeo-Kermani (spoken in the environs of Yazd and elsewhere in Yazd Province, in central Iran; in Kerman and elsewhere in Kerman Province, in south-central Iran)
- Judeo-Shirazi (spoken in Shiraz and elsewhere in Fars Province, in southwestern Iran)
- Judeo-Isfahani (spoken in Isfahan and environs, as well as elsewhere in central and southern Isfahan Province, Iran)
- Judeo-Hamedani (spoken in Hamadan and elsewhere in Hamadan Province, in western Iran)
- Judeo-Kashani (spoken in Kashan, Abyaneh, and elsewhere in northern Isfahan Province, in western Iran)
- Luflā'i (a Kashani variant of Luterā'i)
- Judeo-Borujerdi (spoken in Borujerd and elsewhere in Lorestan Province, in western Iran)
- Judeo-Nehevandi (spoken in Nahavand and elsewhere in northern Hamadan Province, in western Iran)
- Judeo-Khunsari (spoken in Khansar and elsewhere in far-western Isfahan Province, in western Iran)
- Juhuri (Judæo-Tat) (A Jewish-Tat dialect spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan (North Caucasus).
- Judeo-Aramaic (not to be confused with several Jewish Neo-Aramaic languages.
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