Fifth planet from the Sun / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass more than two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined, and slightly less than one one-thousandth the mass of the Sun. Jupiter orbits the Sun at a distance of 5.20 AU (778.5 Gm) with an orbital period of 11.86 years. Jupiter is the third brightest natural object in the Earth's night sky after the Moon and Venus, and it has been observed since prehistoric times. It was named after Jupiter, the chief deity of ancient Roman religion.

Quick facts: Designations, Pronunciation, Named after, Adj...
see caption
Full disk view of Jupiter in natural color, with the shadow of its largest moon Ganymede cast onto it and the Great Red Spot at the left horizon.
Pronunciation/ˈpɪtər/ [1]
Named after
AdjectivesJovian /ˈviən/
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion816.363 Gm (5.4570 AU)
Perihelion740.595 Gm (4.9506 AU)
778.479 Gm (5.2038 AU)
398.88 d
13.07 km/s (8.12 mi/s)
21 January 2023[6]
Known satellites95 (as of 2023)[7]
Physical characteristics[2][8][9]
Mean radius
69,911 km (43,441 mi)[lower-alpha 1]
10.973 of Earth's
Equatorial radius
71,492 km (44,423 mi)[lower-alpha 1]
11.209 R🜨 (of Earth's)
0.10045 R (of Sun's)
Polar radius
66,854 km (41,541 mi)[lower-alpha 1]
10.517 of Earth's
6.1469×1010 km2 (2.3733×1010 sq mi)
120.4 of Earth's
Volume1.4313×1015 km3 (3.434×1014 cu mi)[lower-alpha 1]
1,321 of Earth's
Mass1.8982×1027 kg (4.1848×1027 lb)
  • 317.8 of Earth's
  • 1/1047 of Sun's[10]
Mean density
1,326 kg/m3 (2,235 lb/cu yd)[lower-alpha 2]
24.79 m/s2 (81.3 ft/s2)[lower-alpha 1]
2.528 g
59.5 km/s (37.0 mi/s)[lower-alpha 1]
9.9258 h (9 h 55 m 33 s)[3]
9.9250 hours (9 h 55 m 30 s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
12.6 km/s (7.8 mi/s; 45,000 km/h)
3.13° (to orbit)
North pole right ascension
268.057°; 17h 52m 14s
North pole declination
Albedo0.503 (Bond)[12]
0.538 (geometric)[13]
Temperature88 K (−185 °C) (blackbody temperature)
Surface temp. min mean max
1 bar 165 K
0.1 bar 78 K 128 K
−2.94[14] to −1.66[14]
29.8" to 50.1"
Surface pressure
200–600 kPa (30–90 psi)
(opaque cloud deck)[16]
27 km (17 mi)
Composition by volume

    Jupiter was the first planet to form, and its inward migration during the primordial Solar System impacted much of the formation history of the other planets. Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen (90% by volume), followed by helium, which makes up a quarter of its mass and a tenth of its volume. The ongoing contraction of Jupiter's interior generates more heat than the planet receives from the Sun. Its internal structure is believed to comprise an outer mantle of liquid metallic hydrogen, and a diffuse inner core of denser material. Because of its rapid rotation rate of 1 rotation per 10 hours, Jupiter's shape is an oblate spheroid: it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator. The outer atmosphere is divided into a series of latitudinal bands, with turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. The most obvious result of this is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm which has been observed since 1831 and possibly earlier.

    Jupiter is surrounded by a faint planetary ring system and has a powerful magnetosphere, the second largest contiguous structure in the Solar System (after the heliosphere). Jupiter forms a system of 95 known moons and probably many more, including the four large moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Ganymede, the largest of the four, is larger than the planet Mercury. Callisto is the second largest; Io and Europa are approximately the size of Earth's Moon.

    Since 1973, Jupiter has been visited by nine robotic probes: seven flybys and two dedicated orbiters, with two more either en route or awaiting launch.