Lake Peipus[1] (Estonian: Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Russian: Чудско-Псковское озеро, Псковско-Чудское озеро, romanized: Chudsko-Pskovskoye ozero, Pskovsko-Chudskoye ozero); is the largest trans-boundary lake in Europe, lying on the border between Estonia and Russia.

Quick facts: Lake Peipus, Location, Coordinates, Native na...
Lake Peipus
Landsat satellite photo
Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
LocationEstonia, Russia
Coordinates58°41′N 27°29′E
Native name
  • Peipsi-Pihkva järv (Estonian)
  • Чудско-Псковское/Псковско-Чудское озеро (Russian)
Primary inflowsEmajõgi, Velikaya
Primary outflowsNarva
Catchment area47,800 km2 (18,500 sq mi)
Basin countriesEstonia, Latvia, and Russia
Surface area3,555 km2 (1,373 sq mi)
Average depth7.1 m (23 ft)
Max. depth15.3 m (50 ft)
Water volume25 km3 (6.0 cu mi)
Shore length1520 km (320 mi)
Surface elevation30 m (98 ft)
IslandsKamenka, Kolpina, Piirissaar
SettlementsKallaste, Mustvee
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.
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Drone video of Lake Peipus and the town of Mustvee in July 2022

The lake is the fifth-largest in Europe after Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (in Russia north of Saint Petersburg), Lake Vänern (in Sweden), and Lake Saimaa (in Finland).[2]

The lake is a remnant of water regularly collecting at the foot of large, perennial arctic ice sheets during recent ice ages. It covers 3,555 km2 (1,373 sq mi), and has an average depth of 7.1 m (23 ft), the deepest point being 15 m (49 ft).[3][4] The lake has several islands and consists of three parts:

The lake is used for fishing and recreation, but suffered from environmental degradation from Soviet-era agriculture. Some 30 rivers and streams discharge into Lake Peipus. The largest rivers are the Emajõgi and the Velikaya. The lake drains into the Gulf of Finland via the river Narva.

In 1242 the lake was the site of the Battle on the Ice (Russian: Ледовое побоище; Estonian: Jäälahing) between the Teutonic Knights and Novgorodians under Prince Alexander Nevsky.