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Margaret III, Countess of Flanders

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Margaret III
Flemish School - Lille - Margaret of Dampierre.jpg
Margaret of Dampierre, Countess of Flanders
Countess of Flanders
Reign30 January 1384 – 16 March 1405
PredecessorLouis of Male
SuccessorJohn the Fearless
Duchess consort of Burgundy
Tenure19 June 1369 – 27 April 1404
Tenure14 May 1357 – 21 November 1361
Born(1350-04-13)13 April 1350
Male Castle, West Flanders, Belgium
Died16 March 1405(1405-03-16) (aged 54)
Arras, Artois, France.
Spouse
(m. 1355; died 1361)
(m. 1369; died 1404)
Issue
HouseDampierre
FatherLouis II, Count of Flanders
MotherMargaret of Brabant

Margaret III (13 April 1350 – 16/21 March 1405) was a ruling Countess of Flanders, Countess of Artois, and Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne between 1384 and 1405. She was the last Countess of Flanders of the House of Dampierre.

She was also Duchess of Burgundy by marriage to Philip I, Duke of Burgundy and Philip II, Duke of Burgundy.

Biography

Margaret was the only surviving child and heir of Count Louis II of Flanders (1346–1384) and Margaret of Brabant.[1]

First marriage

In 1355,[2] Margaret of Flanders married Philip of Rouvres,[3] grandson and heir of Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy. Philip was Count of Burgundy and Artois (1347–1361), Duke of Burgundy (1350–1361), and became Count of Auvergne and Boulogne (1360–1361).

Second marriage

Following Philip's death from a riding accident in 1361,[4] Margaret was widowed and had no issue by him. King John II of France then claimed the Duchy of Burgundy for the kingdom of France,[4] by escheat.[4] In 1364, Philip the Bold, King John's youngest son, was granted the duchy,[5] and subsequently married Margaret.[6] Margaret's second marriage to Philip the Bold took place in 1369.[7]

Ruling Countess

When Margaret's father, the Count of Flanders, died in 1384, she and Philip inherited the counties of Artois, Burgundy, Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel.[8] Philip died in 1404, and Margaret died the following year.

With her death, the House of Dampierre came to an end, and the County of Flanders lost its (relative) independence to Burgundy. It came under the rule of her son, John the Fearless, and later to the House of Habsburg.

Issue

Miniature depicting the marriage of Philip and Margaret
Miniature depicting the marriage of Philip and Margaret

Margaret and Philip had the following children:

Legacy

The main line of the House of Dampierre ended with Margaret III. The Dampierres, originally only counts of Flanders, had through a clever marriage policy managed to inherit the counties of Nevers (1280) and Rethel (1328). Through her grandmother, a daughter of King Philip V of France, the counties of Artois and Burgundy (the "Franche Comté") were added to this (1382). These lands were to provide the core of the dominions of the House of Valois-Burgundy, which were, together with the Duchy of Burgundy, to provide them with a power base to challenge the rule of their cousins, the Valois kings of France in the 15th century.

Her eldest son, John the Fearless, succeeded her father Louis as Count of Nevers in 1384,[9] her husband in 1404 as Duke of Burgundy and her as Count of Burgundy, Count of Artois, and Count of Flanders. In 1406 her younger son Anthony inherited Brabant and Limburg. Nevers and Rethel were at first, in her lifetime, given to her eldest sons John (Nevers) and Anthony (Rethel), but after John's accession to the duchy, Nevers went to her youngest son Philip. Rethel was given to Philip in 1402 when it became clear that Anthony would inherit Brabant.

Residences

In Burgundy, the Château de Germolles, offered to Margaret of Flanders by Philip the Bold in 1381, was transformed by the Duchess of Burgundy into a sumptuous country estate. It was a large rectangular building, surrounded by a moat, that enclosed a courtyard. The south and east wings contained the living apartments, while the west wing held the reception rooms. Margaret, being energetic and a country lover, decided to develop at the estate some rustic activities that would create a pleasant environment around this favourite residence of hers, as well as developing local agriculture and providing some income for the maintenance of the domain. Thus, she planted a large rose garden, and the petals were sent to Flanders to be used to make rose water. Largely preserved, the Château is today one of the best examples of the princely residences in France at the end of the Middle Ages.

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ Boffa 2004, p. xvii.
  2. ^ Blockmans & Prevenier 1999, p. 13.
  3. ^ Nicholas 1992, p. 225-226, 442.
  4. ^ a b c Ormrod 2011, p. 417.
  5. ^ Vaughan 2005, p. 152.
  6. ^ Bauer-Smith 2004, p. 130.
  7. ^ Blockmans & Prevenier 1999, p. 1.
  8. ^ Nolan 2006, p. 100.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Vaughan 2005, p. 81.

Sources

  • Bauer-Smith, Charlotte (2004). "Mapping Family Lines: A Late Fifteenth Century Example of Genealogical Display". In Biggs, Douglas L.; Michalove, Sharon D.; Reeves, Albert Compton (eds.). Reputation and Representation in Fifteenth Century Europe. Brill.
  • Blockmans, Wim; Prevenier, Walter (1999). Peters, Edward (ed.). The Promised Lands: The Low Countries Under Burgundian Rule, 1369-1530. Translated by Fackelman, Elizabeth. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Boffa, Sergio (2004). Warfare in Medieval Brabant, 1356-1406. Boydell & Brewer.
  • Nicholas, David M (1992). Medieval Flanders. Routledge.
  • Nolan, Cathal J. (2006). "Duchy of Burgundy". The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Vol. 1. Greenwood Publishing.
  • Ormrod, W. Mark (2011). Edward III. Yale University Press.
  • Vaughan, Richard (2005). Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State. The Boydell Press.
Margaret III, Countess of Flanders House of DampierreBorn: 13 April 1350 Died: 21 March 1405 Regnal titles Preceded byLouis of Mâle Countess of Flanders, Artois and NeversCountess Palatine of Burgundy 1384–1405 Succeeded byJohn the Fearless Countess of Rethel 1384–1402 Succeeded byAnthony
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Margaret III, Countess of Flanders
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