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Infectious viral disease / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Mpox (formerly known as monkeypox)[6] is an infectious viral disease that can occur in humans and some other animals.[1] Symptoms include a rash that forms blisters and then crusts over, fever, and swollen lymph nodes.[1] The illness is usually mild and most of those infected will recover within a few weeks without treatment.[5] The time from exposure to onset of symptoms ranges from five to twenty-one days and symptoms typically last from two to four weeks.[2] Cases may be severe, especially in children, pregnant women or people with suppressed immune systems.[7]

Quick facts: Mpox, Pronunciation, Specialty, Symptoms, Com...
A rash caused by mpox
Mpox rash on arm and leg of a four-year-old girl in 1971
SpecialtyInfectious disease[1]
SymptomsRash, fever, exhaustion, swollen lymph nodes, muscle aches, sore throat[2]
Complicationssecondary infections, pneumonia, sepsis, encephalitis, and loss of vision with severe eye infection[1]
Usual onset5–21 days post exposure[2]
Duration2 to 4 weeks[2]
TypesClade I, Clade II[1]
CausesMonkeypox virus[3]
Diagnostic methodTesting for viral DNA[1]
Differential diagnosisChickenpox, smallpox[4]
PreventionSmallpox & mpox vaccine, hand washing, covering rash, PPE, social distancing[1]
MedicationTecovirimat, antivirals[1]
PrognosisMost recover[5]

The disease is caused by the monkeypox virus,[lower-alpha 1] a zoonotic virus in the genus Orthopoxvirus. The variola virus, the causative agent of the disease smallpox, is also in this genus.[1] Human-to-human transmission can occur through direct contact with infected skin or body fluids, including sexual contact.[1] People remain infectious from the onset of symptoms until all the lesions have scabbed and healed.[7] It may spread from infected animals by handling infected meat or via bites or scratches.[7] Diagnosis can be confirmed by PCR testing a lesion for the virus' DNA.[1]

Vaccination is recommended for those at high risk of infection.[1] Evidence shows that the MVA-BN[lower-alpha 2] vaccine is 86% effective at reducing the risk of mpox illness.[8][9][10] The aim of treatment is to manage the symptoms and prevent complications[1] as there is no specific treatment for the disease.[11] Antiviral drugs such as tecovirimat can be used to treat mpox,[1] although their effectiveness has not been proved.[12]

Mpox is endemic in central and western Africa, where several species of mammals are suspected to act as a natural reservoir of the virus.[1] The first human cases were diagnosed in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).[13] Since then the frequency and severity of outbreaks has significantly increased, possibly as a result of waning immunity since the cessation of routine smallpox vaccination.[13] The 2022–2023 mpox outbreak represents the first incidence of widespread community transmission outside of Africa. This was initially identified in the United Kingdom in May 2022, with subsequent cases confirmed in 111 countries as of May 2023.[14] The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) between 23 July 2022 and 10 May 2023.[15]