Muhammad in Islam

Role of Muhammad in the Islamic religion / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Muḥammad bin ʿAbd Allāh bin ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib bin Hāshim (Arabic: مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ ٱللهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ ٱلْمُطَّلِبِ بْنِ هَاشِمٍ; c. 570 – 8 June 632 CE) is believed to be the seal of the messengers and prophets of God in all of the main branches of Islam. Muslims believe that the Quran, the central religious text of Islam, was revealed to Muhammad by God, and that Muhammad was sent to restore Islam, which they believe did not originate with Muhammad but is the true unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[1][2][3][4] The religious, social, and political tenets that Muhammad established with the Quran became the foundation of Islam and the Muslim world.[5]

Quick facts: Imam al-Anbiya Rasūl AllāhMuhammad, Prophet o...
Imam al-Anbiya
Rasūl Allāh
"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
Prophet of Islam
Preceded byIsa (Jesus)
Succeeded byNone
TitleKhatam an-Nabiyyin ('Seal of the Prophets')
BornMonday, 12 Rabi' al-Awwal 53 BH (c. 21 April 570 CE) or Saturday, 17 Rabi' al-Awwal 53 BH (c. 26 April 570 CE)
DiedMonday, 12 Rabi' al-Awwal 11 AH (8 June 632 CE)
Medina, Hejaz, Arabia
Resting placeGreen Dome, Prophet's Mosque, Medina
SpouseSee Muhammad's wives
ChildrenSee Muhammad's children
Notable work(s)Constitution of Medina
Other namesSee Names and titles of Muhammad
RelativesSee Family tree of Muhammad, Ahl al-Bayt  ("Family of the House")
Muslim leader
SuccessorSee Succession to Muhammad
Arabic name
Personal (Ism)Muhammad
Patronymic (Nasab)Muḥammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai ibn Kilab
Teknonymic (Kunya)Abu al-Qasim

Born about the year 53 BH (570 CE) into a respected Qurayshi family of Mecca, Muhammad earned the title "al-Amin" (اَلْأَمِينُ, meaning "the Trustworthy").[6][7] At the age of 40 in 11 BH (610 CE), Muhammad is said to have received his first verbal revelation in the cave called Hira, which was the beginning of the descent of the Quran that continued up to the end of his life; and Muslims hold that Muhammad was asked by God to preach the oneness of God in order to stamp out idolatry, a practice overtly present in pre-Islamic Arabia.[8][9] Because of persecution of the newly converted Muslims, upon the invitation of a delegation from Medina (then known as Yathrib), Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina in 1 AH (622 CE), an event known as the Hijrah.[10][11] A turning point in Muhammad's life, this Hijrah also marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad sketched out the Constitution of Medina specifying the rights of and relations among the various existing communities there, formed an independent community, and managed to establish the first Islamic state.[12] Despite the ongoing hostility of the Meccans, Muhammad, along with his followers, took control of Mecca in 630,[13][14] and ordered the destruction of all pagan idols.[15][16] In his later years in Medina, Muhammad unified the different tribes of Arabia under Islam[17] and carried out social and religious reforms.[18] By the time he died in about 11 AH (632 CE), almost all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.[19]

Muslims often refer to Muhammad as Prophet Muhammad, or just "The Prophet" or "The Messenger", and regard him as the greatest of all Prophets.[1][20][21][22] He is seen by the Muslims as a possessor of all virtues.[23] As an act of respect, Muslims follow the name of Muhammad by the Arabic benediction sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, (meaning Peace be upon him),[24] sometimes abbreviated as "SAW" or "PBUH".

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