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Photograph manipulation

Transformation or alteration of a photograph / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Photograph manipulation involves the transformation or alteration of a photograph. Some photograph manipulations are considered to be skillful artwork, while others are considered to be unethical practices, especially when used to deceive. Photographs may be manipulated for political propaganda, to improve the appearance of a subject, for entertainment, or as humor.

Australian photographer Frank Hurley formed this composite photograph from three original negatives of World War I Belgium.[1] Hurley argued with superiors over the ethics of compositing photos, arguing that war was conducted on such a vast scale that it was impossible to capture the essence of it in a single negative.[2]

Depending on the application and intent, some photograph manipulations are considered an art form because they involve creation of unique images and in some instances, signature expressions of art by photographic artists. For example, Ansel Adams used darkroom exposure techniques, burning (darkening) and dodging (lightening) a photograph.[3][4] Other techniques include retouching using ink or paint, airbrushing, double exposure, piecing photos or negatives together in the darkroom, and scratching instant films. Software tools applied to digital images range from professional applications to basic imaging software for casual users. Photoshopping is a verb for photograph manipulation as a genericized trademark of Adobe Photoshop.