Manipulation (psychology)

Exploitative type of social influence / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In psychology, manipulation is defined as subterfuge designed to influence or control another, usually in a manner which facilitates one's personal aims.[1][2] Definitions for the term vary in which behavior is specifically included, influenced by both culture and whether referring to the general population or used in clinical contexts.[3] Manipulation is generally considered a dishonest form of social influence as it is used at the expense of others.[4]

Manipulative tendencies may derive from cluster B personality disorders such as narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder.[5] Manipulation is also correlated with higher levels of emotional intelligence,[6][5] and is a chief component of the personality construct dubbed Machiavellianism.[7][5]

Manipulation differs from general influence and persuasion. Non-manipulative influence is generally perceived to be harmless and it is not seen as unduly coercive to the individual's right of acceptance or rejection of influence.[8] Persuasion is the ability to move others to a desired action, usually within the context of a specific goal. Persuasion often attempts to influence ones beliefs, religion, motivations, or behavior. Influence and persuasion are neither positive nor negative, unlike manipulation which is strictly negative.[9] Manipulation is often seen as negative, though some argue that it has positive aspects.[contradictory] Positive manipulation is a form of practice where an individual can turn any aspect that may not be going well into a positive experience. Ultimately, one's goal is to not be manipulated but if the situation does arise, the individual is able to manifest for the best. Self-development provides the opportunity for an individual to grow, and help influence the behaviors of others as well.[10][clarification needed][relevant?] Individuals who behave in prosocial behavior manners can be manipulated to have positive mood reactions. Alongside showing encouragement during a time where an individual is feeling down can result in improvements in mood.[11][relevant?]