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Secret correspondence of James VI

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The secret correspondence of James VI was communication between James VI, King of Scotland and administrators of Elizabeth I of England between May 1601 and the Queen's death in March 1603. In this period it was settled that James would succeed Elizabeth, but the diplomatic result was kept secret. James's accession to the thrones of England and Ireland is known as the Union of the Crowns.

Prequel

Elizabeth sent a miniature portrait by Nicholas Hilliard to Prince Henry at Stirling Castle
Elizabeth sent a miniature portrait by Nicholas Hilliard to Prince Henry at Stirling Castle
Anne of Denmark requested portraits of the Earl of Essex and Lady Rich
Anne of Denmark requested portraits of the Earl of Essex and Lady Rich

Scottish diplomats including the resident James Hudson, a former court musician, the financier Thomas Foulis, and ambassadors including David Foulis, William Keith of Delny, and Edward Bruce, Commendator of Kinloss were in touch with the Earl of Essex and his secretary Anthony Bacon.[1]

In July 1595 the Chancellor of Scotland, John Maitland of Thirlestane, wrote to the Earl of Essex to try to establish a correspondence, a future "diligent intercourse of intelligence" involving the Scottish diplomat Richard Cockburn of Clerkington and Essex's secretary Anthony Bacon.[2] Essex replied that he wrote only with the Queen's knowledge and that they would be happy to receive letters from Maitland or Cockburn.[3]

Anna of Denmark's request for portraits of the Earl of Essex and his sister, meaning Lady Rich, reached Bacon in December 1595. James Hudson renewed the Scottish queen's request on 16 August 1596.[4] In 1596 Elizabeth, via the Earl of Essex and Anthony Bacon, sent her miniature portrait by Nicholas Hilliard to Prince Henry, and this was received by his guardian, the Earl of Mar at Stirling, according to Bacon's letter to Edward Bruce.[5] Bacon sent Elizabeth's portrait represented "in exquisite workmanship" to Bruce on 1 October 1596.[6]

James Hudson delivered Bacon's letters to James VI at Holyrood Palace who was alone in his chamber with Sir George Home in March 1596. The king read some carefully and laughed at others, and asked Hudson to return his "hearty and loving thanks". Hudson stressed to the king with such "secrecy and charge the papers were delivered". And so, wrote Hudson, "in his majesty's own presence I made a fire-sacrifice of all".[7]

Anthony Bacon, discussing the security of Essex's correspondence, contrasted his letters to and from David Foulis and Hudson with Nicholson's letters to James VI, as "a public minister's letters to a king" with "letters betwixt private friends".[8]

Embassy of the Earl of Mar

James Erskine, Earl of Mar, and Edward Bruce went to London as ambassadors in February 1601, attempting to secure the throne of England for James VI.[9] The Scottish ambassadors expected to negotiate with the Earl of Essex, but he was executed on 25 February 1601 before their arrival in London.[10] Their first set of instructions are known from a summary by Essex's servant Henry Cuffe, who was condemned to hang.[11]

James VI then gave his ambassadors new instructions that they should "walk surely between the precipices of the Queen and the people." He encouraged them to go forward in private negotiation and to secure the individual support of key towns and ports.[12] Although Mar and Bruce gained the confidence of Robert Cecil and an understanding on the succession was reached, their success was kept secret.[13]

At a meeting at the Duchy of Lancaster House, on the Strand, Cecil requested James not to seek an English parliamentary recognition of his claim to the throne, and that future correspondence with the Scottish ambassadors should be a secret from Elizabeth herself. The ambassadors returned to Scotland in May 1601.[14] Until the death of Elizabeth on 24 March 1603, two exchanges of letters between England and Scotland were kept up: the usual communication and the "secret correspondence".[15]

Letters

The private letters to Scotland were written by Robert Cecil and Henry Howard. James's letters were written by Mar; Bruce and perhaps Mar's kinsman, Thomas Erskine of Gogar.[16] Some of the letters were sent to England as if they were meant for the Duke of Rohan in France and so arrived in England to be added to the "diplomatic bag". The 18th-century historian Thomas Birch suggested that a Scottish representative in London, James Hamilton, was involved in sending the letters to Scotland. Hamilton had kept a school in Dublin and later, James made him Viscount Clandeboye.[17] James Hamilton was accredited by James VI to reside in London by his letters to Elizabeth and Robert Cecil on 4 August 1600. James said that Hamilton would be a "remaining agent" the equivalent of George Nicolson in Edinburgh.[18]

James VI of Scotland criticised Henry Howard's verbose writing style.
James VI of Scotland criticised Henry Howard's verbose writing style.

The English diplomat Henry Wotton later gave an anecdote that Elizabeth had once noticed mail arriving from Scotland. She demanded to see it, and Cecil made to open the satchel (which Wotton called a 'budget') but told the Queen it was filthy and smelled bad, and she could have the letters after they were aired.[19] It remains unclear if Elizabeth was actually unaware of any detail of Cecil's negotiations, as the historian Geoffrey Elton assumed.[20]

Henry Wotton himself came to Scotland in September 1601 from Florence. Posing as an Italian, Octavio Baldi, he met James and remained in character for three months. James discussed Wotton's arrival with Edward Bruce, Sir George Home, and the Earl of Mar. The English resident George Nicholson was unaware that the "Italian" was Wotton.[21] Wotton later wrote that his mission was from Ferdinando de' Medici to advise James of a poison plot against him and bring a gift of antidotes.[22]

Some of the letters, as was quite usual in diplomatic correspondence, used numbers to refer to individuals; James was '30', Mar was '20', Robert Cecil was '10', Bruce '8', and Northampton '3'.[23][24] By June 1602, James wrote of how Cecil and his colleague "40" had "so easily settled me in the only right course for my good, [and] so happily preserved the Queen's mind from the poison of jealous prejudice."[25]

A separate "public" correspondence between Elizabeth and James continued. The historian John Duncan Mackie thought that the tone of the public letters had become more cordial than in previous years.[26] The irregular subsidy that Elizabeth paid to James (in cash or jewellery) was continued.[27]

James criticised Howard's writing style. In May 1602 he wrote how "my own laconic style" compared with Howard's "ample Asiatic and endless volumes".[28] The 19th-century historian Patrick Fraser Tytler noted the excessive flattery used by Howard and the effort made to exclude others from the discussions. Although James noticed and challenged Howard's attempts to direct his actions with regard to other channels of communication, Tytler summed up their successful co-operation:

"At all events, nothing could have been more secretly or adroitly managed than the whole correspondence between Howard, Cecil, and the Scottish king. No one had the least suspicion of the understanding that existed between the trio".[29]

John Duncan Mackie noted that those unaware of the letters included the English resident agent in Scotland George Nicholson; the Master of Grey, an intriguer who served the Duke of Lennox; and James's own secretary James Elphinstone, 1st Lord Balmerino. One man outside the circle came to know of the letters, and his letter came into the hands of Bishop of Durham in March 1602. It mentions that James VI had kept up a correspondence with Robert Cecil for six months but still disliked him. The Bishop sent the letter to Cecil. Mackie thought the handwriting of this anonymous letter was William Fowler's, the poet and secretary to Anne of Denmark.[30]

Frances Howard, Countess of Kildare, also tried to set up a correspondence with the Scottish court, and the Earl of Northampton tried to prevent her.[31] Anne of Denmark took a keen interest in the correspondence of James Sempill, a diplomat working for her husband.[32]

References

  1. ^ Miles Kerr-Peterson, 'Sir William Keith of Delny: Courtier, Ambassador and Agent of Noble Power', Innes Review 67:2 (2016), pp. 138-158
  2. ^ Alexander Courtney, 'The Secret Correspondence of James VI, 1601-3', in Susan Doran and Paulina Kewes, Doubtful and dangerous: The question of the succession in late Elizabethan England (Manchester, 2014), p. 136.
  3. ^ HMC Mar & Kellie, vol. 2 (London, 1930), pp. 36-7.
  4. ^ Thomas Birch, Memorials of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, vol. 1 (London, 1754), p. 342; vol. 2, p. 111.
  5. ^ Elizabeth Goldring, Nicholas Hilliard: Life of an Artist (London, 2019), p. 216: Paul Hammer, The polarisation of Elizabethan politics: The political career of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (Cambridge, 1999), p. 171: Lambeth Palace Library MS 659 f.217.
  6. ^ Thomas Birch, Memorials of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, vol. 2 (London, 1754), p. 151.
  7. ^ Thomas Birch, Memorials of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, vol. 1 (London, 1754), pp. 442-3.
  8. ^ Thomas Birch, Memorials of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, vol. 2 (London, 1754), p. 233.
  9. ^ David Masson, Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, vol. 6 (Edinburgh, 1884), p. 204.
  10. ^ Bruce, John, (1861), p. xxix.
  11. ^ Janet Dickinson, Court Politics and the Earl of Essex, 1589-1601 (Routledge, 2016), pp. 99-100: Yorke, Philip, Miscellaneous State Papers, vol. 1 (London, 1778) pp. 372-376: Thomas Birch, Memoirs of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, vol. 2 (London, 1754), pp. 512-4
  12. ^ Dalrymple, David, Lord Hailes, Secret Correspondence (Edinburgh, 1766), pp. 1-12, James to Mar, 8 April 1601.
  13. ^ Houlbrooke, Ralph Anthony, James VI and I: Ideas, Authority, and Government (Ashgate, 2006), p. 40.
  14. ^ Thomas Birch, Memorials of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, vol. 2 (London, 1754), pp. 513-4.
  15. ^ Bruce, John (1861), p. xxxv.
  16. ^ Alexander Courtney, 'The Secret Correspondence of James VI, 1601-3', Susan Doran & Paulina Kewes, Doubtful and dangerous: The question of the succession in late Elizabethan England (Manchester, 2014), p. 139: For Thomas Erskine, see Hailes (1766), pp. 97, 102, 111, 137, 209.
  17. ^ Calendar State Papers Scotland, 13:1 (Edinburgh, 1969), pp. xvii, xxxvii: Birch, Thomas, Life of Prince Henry (London/Dublin, 1760), p. 232
  18. ^ John Duncan Mackie, Calendar State Papers Scotland, 13:2 (Edinburgh, 1969), pp. 674-5.
  19. ^ Bruce, John (1861), p.xxxix, citing Henry Wotton, Reliquiae Wottonianae (London, 1672), p. 169.
  20. ^ Alexander Courtney, 'The Secret Correspondence of James VI, 1601-3', Susan Doran & Paulina Kewes, Doubtful and dangerous: The question of the succession in late Elizabethan England (Manchester, 2014), p. 139.
  21. ^ CSP. Scotland, 13:2 (Edinburgh, 1969), p. 876 no. 714.
  22. ^ Henry Wotton, Reliquiae Wottonianae (London, 1654), pp. 29-35.
  23. ^ Bruce (1861), pp. 15-32.
  24. ^ Thomas Birch, Memorials of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, vol. 2 (London, 1754), p. 514.
  25. ^ Bruce (1861), p. 15, modern spelling.
  26. ^ Mackie, vol. 1 (1969), p.xvii.
  27. ^ Julian Goodare, 'James VI's English Subsidy', Julian Goodare & Michael Lynch, The Reign of James VI (Tuckwell: East Linton, 2000), p. 115.
  28. ^ Hailes (1766), p.116: Alexander Courtney, 'The Secret Correspondence of James VI, 1601-3', in Susan Doran & Paulina Kewes, Doubtful and dangerous: The question of the succession in late Elizabethan England (Manchester, 2014), p. 140.
  29. ^ Tytler, P.F., History of Scotland, vol. 4 (Edinburgh, 1879), p. 307.
  30. ^ Calendar of State Papers Scotland, 13:1 (Edinburgh, 1969), p. xvii & fn.2 citing HMC Salisbury Hatfield: Addenda, vol. 14 (London, 1923), pp. 211-2
  31. ^ David Dalrymple, Secret Correspondence with James VI (Edinburgh, 1766), pp. 19-23, 209-10: HMC Mar & Kellie, vol. 1 (London, 1904), pp. 54-5, of 1601 but misdated
  32. ^ Calendar State Papers Scotland, 13:2 (Edinburgh, 1969), pp. 976 no. 793, 994 no. 806.
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Secret correspondence of James VI
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