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South American Datum

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The South American Datum (SAD) is a regional historical geodetic datum for South America. The most common version was established in 1969 (SAD69), as adopted by the Pan American Institute of Geography and History.[1]

It uses as reference ellipsoid the Geodetic Reference System 1967 (GRS-67), recommended by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in Lucerne in 1967.[2] This ellipsoid acquired topocentric orientation defined at the astrogeodetic vertex Chuá, in the municipality of Uberaba, Brazil.[3][4]

This datum was subsequently adopted by many South American countries, including the earlier Brazilian Geodetic System (Sistema Geodésico Brasileiro - SGB). In most countries, SAD was recently replaced by SIRGAS; for example, in Brazil SIRGAS was adopted starting in 2005 and mandated since 2014.[5]


  1. ^ Fischer, Irene (1970). "THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN DATUM 1969". Survey Review. Informa UK Limited. 20 (158): 354–365. doi:10.1179/sre.1970.20.158.354. ISSN 0039-6265.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ Sampaio, Antonio Carlos Freire; Sampaio, Adriany de Ávila Melo; Cerissi, Bruna Costa de Oliveira; Silva, Rafael Tiago dos Santos (2019-06-11). "VÉRTICE CHUÁ - SUA SITUAÇÃO E A NECESSIDADE DE PRESERVAÇÃO DE MONUMENTOS DA CARTOGRAFIA HISTÓRICA BRASILEIRA". Revista Brasileira de Cartografia (in Portuguese). 67 (4): 877–885. ISSN 1808-0936. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
  5. ^ "Transformation of Coordinates among Official Referential Systems". IBGE. 2005-02-25. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
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South American Datum
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