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Soyuz-2 (GRAU index 14A14) is a modernized version of the Soviet Soyuz rocket. In its basic form, it is a three-stage launch vehicle for placing payloads into low Earth orbit. Compared to the previous versions of the Soyuz, the first-stage boosters and two core stages feature uprated engines with improved injection systems. Digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to be launched from a fixed launch platform, whereas the launch platforms for earlier Soyuz rockets had to be rotated as the rocket could not perform a roll to change its heading in flight.

Quick facts: Function, Manufacturer, Country of origin, Co...
Soyuz-2 (2.1a / 2.1b / ST-A / ST-B)
A MetOp spacecraft ready for the launch atop a Soyuz-2.1a rocket.
FunctionOrbital launch vehicle
ManufacturerTsSKB-Progress (Samara) and Chemical Automatics Design Bureau (Voronezh) [1]
Country of originRussia
Cost per launchUS$80 million (Arianespace) US$35-48.5 million (Roscosmos) [2][3]
Height46.3 m (152 ft) [4]
Diameter2.95 m (9 ft 8 in)
Mass312,000 kg (688,000 lb)
Stages2 or 3
Payload to LEO[lower-alpha 1]
Mass2.1a: 7,020 kg (15,480 lb)
2.1b: 8,200 kg (18,100 lb) [4]
Payload to SSO[lower-alpha 2]
MassST-A: 4,230 kg (9,330 lb)
ST-B: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb) [5]
Payload to GTO[lower-alpha 3]
MassST-A: 2,810 kg (6,190 lb)
ST-B: 3,250 kg (7,170 lb) [5]
Payload to TLI [lower-alpha 4]
MassST-B: 2,350 kg (5,180 lb) [6]
Payload to GSO [lower-alpha 5]
MassST-B: 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) [6]
Associated rockets
FamilyR-7 (Soyuz)
Launch history
Launch sites
Total launches155 (+1 suborbital) (2.1a: 66 (+1 suborbital), 2.1b: 80, 2.1v: 9)
Success(es)148 (+1 suborbital) (2.1a: 63 (+1 suborbital), 2.1b: 77, 2.1v: 8)
Failure(s)4 (2.1a: 2, 2.1b: 2, 2.1v: 0)
Partial failure(s)3 (2.1a: 1, 2.1b: 1, 2.1v: 1)
First flight
  • 2.1a: 8 November 2004
  • 2.1b: 27 December 2006
  • 2.1v: 28 December 2013
Last flight
  • 2.1a: Active
  • 2.1b: Active
  • 2.1v: Active
Type of passengers/cargo
Boosters – Blok-B, V, G, D [7]
No. boosters4
Height19.6 m (64 ft)
Diameter2.68 m (8 ft 10 in)
Empty mass3,784 kg (8,342 lb)
Gross mass44,413 kg (97,914 lb)
Propellant mass39,160 kg (86,330 lb)
Powered byRD-107A
Maximum thrustSea level: 839.48 kN (188,720 lbf)
Vacuum: 1,019.93 kN (229,290 lbf)
Specific impulseSea level: 263.3 s (2.582 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.2 s (3.140 km/s)
Burn time118 seconds
PropellantLOX / RP-1
First stage – Blok-A [7]
Height27.10 m (88.9 ft)
Diameter2.95 m (9 ft 8 in)
Empty mass6,545 kg (14,429 lb)
Gross mass99,765 kg (219,944 lb)
Propellant mass90,100 kg (198,600 lb)
Powered byRD-108A
Maximum thrustSea level: 792.41 kN (178,140 lbf)
Vacuum: 921.86 kN (207,240 lbf)
Specific impulseSea level: 257.7 s (2.527 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.6 s (3.144 km/s)
Burn time286 seconds
PropellantLOX / RP-1
Second stage – Blok-I [7]
Height6.70 m (22.0 ft)
Diameter2.66 m (8 ft 9 in)
Empty mass2,355 kg (5,192 lb)
Gross mass27,755 kg (61,189 lb)
Propellant mass25,400 kg (56,000 lb)
Powered by2.1a / STA: RD-0110
2.1b / STB: RD-0124
Maximum thrustRD-0110: 298 kN (67,000 lbf)
RD-0124: 294.3 kN (66,200 lbf)
Specific impulseRD-0110: 326 seconds
RD-0124: 359 seconds
Burn time270 seconds
PropellantLOX / RP-1
Upper stage (optional) – Fregat / Fregat-M / Fregat-MT [8]
Height1.5 m (4 ft 11 in)
DiameterFregat / Fregat-M: 3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Fregat-MT: 3.80 m (12.5 ft)
Empty massFregat: 930 kg (2,050 lb)
Fregat-M: 980 kg (2,160 lb)
Fregat-MT: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb)
Propellant massFregat: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb)
Fregat-M: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb)
Fregat-MT: 7,100 kg (15,700 lb)
Powered byS5.92
Maximum thrust19.85 kN (4,460 lbf)
Specific impulse333.2 seconds
Burn time1100 seconds
PropellantN2O4 / UDMH
Upper stage (optional) – Volga[9]
Height1.025 m (3 ft 4.4 in)
Diameter3.2 m (10 ft)
Empty mass840 kg (1,850 lb)
Propellant mass300–900 kg (660–1,980 lb)
Powered by17D64[10]
Maximum thrust2.94 kN (660 lbf)
Specific impulse307 seconds
PropellantN2O4 / UDMH

Soyuz-2 is often flown with an upper stage, which allows it to lift payloads into higher orbits, such as Molniya and geosynchronous orbits. The upper stage is equipped with independent flight control and telemetry systems from those used in the rest of the rocket. The NPO Lavochkin manufactured Fregat is the most commonly used upper stage.

Soyuz-2 rockets were first launched from Site 31 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and Site 43 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, launch facilities shared with earlier R-7 derived rockets including the Soyuz-U and Molniya. Commercial Soyuz-2 flights are contracted by Starsem and have launched from Site 31 at Baikonur Cosmodrome and Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz (ELS), which has been built at the Centre Spatial Guyanais on the northern coast of South America. The Soyuz-2 version ST-B can deliver 3,250 kg (7,170 lb) to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) from this equatorial site.[5] In 2016, the new Vostochny Cosmodrome started operating Soyuz-2 flights as well, from its first launch pad called Vostochny Cosmodrome Site 1S.

The Soyuz-2 has replaced the Molniya-M, Soyuz-U and Soyuz-FG since 2010, 2017 and 2019 respectively.[11][12][13] TsSKB-Progress halted production of Soyuz-U in April 2015; the final flight of a Soyuz-U rocket took place on 22 February 2017, carrying Progress MS-05 to the International Space Station (ISS). According to CNES officials interviewed in May 2018, launches of Soyuz from Centre Spatial Guyanais may be replaced by the Ariane 6 medium-lift version A62 in 2021,[14] but later moved back to 2022 or later.[15]