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Thermodynamic system

Body of matter in a state of internal equilibrium / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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A thermodynamic system is a body of matter and/or radiation, considered as separate from its surroundings, and studied using the laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic systems may be isolated, closed, or open. An isolated system exchanges no matter or energy with its surroundings, whereas a closed system does not exchange matter but may exchange heat and experience and exert forces. An open system can interact with its surroundings by exchanging both matter and energy. The physical condition of a thermodynamic system at a given time is described by its state, which can be specified by the values of a set of thermodynamic state variables. A thermodynamic system is in thermodynamic equilibrium when there are no macroscopically apparent flows of matter or energy within it or between it and other systems.[1]


Properties of isolated, closed, and open thermodynamic systems in exchanging energy and matter