Third culture kid

Individuals who are raised in a culture other than their parents' culture / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Third culture kids (TCK) or third culture individuals (TCI) are people who were raised in a culture other than their parents' or the culture of their country of nationality, and also live in a different environment during a significant part of their child development years.[1] They typically are exposed to a greater volume and variety of cultural influences than those who grow up in one particular cultural setting.[2] The term applies to both adults and children, as the term "kid" refers to the individual's formative or developmental years. However, for clarification, sometimes the term adult third culture kid (ATCK) is used.

TCKs move between cultures before they have had the opportunity to fully develop their personal and cultural identity.[3] The first culture of such individuals refers to the culture of the country from which the parents originated, the second culture refers to the culture in which the family currently resides, and the third culture refers to the distinct cultural ties among all third culture individuals that share no connection to the first two cultures.[4][5][6]

In the early 21st century, the number of bilingual children in the world was about the same as the number of monolingual children.[7] TCKs are often exposed to a second (or third, fourth, etc.) language while living in their host culture, being physically exposed to the environment where the native language is used in practical aspects of life. "TCKs learn some languages in schools abroad and some in their homes or in the marketplaces of a foreign land. ... Some pick up languages from the nannies in the home or from playmates in the neighborhood".[8] This language immersion is why TCKs are often bilingual, and sometimes even multilingual.[1]