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Transfer payment

Governmental wealth redistribution / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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In macroeconomics and finance, a transfer payment (also called a government transfer or simply fiscal transfer) is a redistribution of income and wealth by means of the government making a payment, without goods or services being received in return. These payments are considered to be non-exhaustive because they do not directly absorb resources or create output.[1] Examples of transfer payments include welfare, financial aid, social security, and government subsidies for certain businesses.

Transfer payments to (persons) as a percent of federal revenue in the United States
Transfer payments to (persons + business) in the United States

Unlike the exchange transaction which mutually benefits all the parties involved in it, the transfer payment consists of a donor and a recipient, with the donor giving up something of value without receiving anything in return. Transfers can be made both between individuals and entities, such as private companies or governmental bodies. These transactions can be both voluntary or involuntary and are generally motivated either by the altruism of the donor or the malevolence of the recipient.[2]

For the purpose of calculating gross domestic product (GDP), government spending does not include transfer payments, which are the reallocation of money from one party to another rather than expenditure on newly produced goods and services.[3]