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Can you list the top facts and stats about Tuberculosis?
Summarize this article for a 10 year old
Tuberculosis (TB), also known as the "white death", or historically as consumption, is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections show no symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. Around 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kill about half of those affected. Typical symptoms of active TB are chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.
|Other names||Phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, consumption, great white plague|
|Chest X-ray of a person with advanced tuberculosis: Infection in both lungs is marked by white arrow-heads, and the formation of a cavity is marked by black arrows.|
|Specialty||Infectious disease, pulmonology|
|Symptoms||Chronic cough, fever, cough with bloody mucus, weight loss|
|Risk factors||Smoking, HIV/AIDS|
|Diagnostic method||CXR, culture, tuberculin skin test, QuantiFERON|
|Differential diagnosis||Pneumonia, histoplasmosis, sarcoidosis, coccidioidomycosis|
|Prevention||Screening those at high risk, treatment of those infected, vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)|
|Frequency||25% of people (latent TB)|
|Deaths||1.5 million (2020)|
Tuberculosis is spread from one person to the next through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. People with latent TB do not spread the disease. Active infection occurs more often in people with HIV/AIDS and in those who smoke. Diagnosis of active TB is based on chest X-rays, as well as microscopic examination and culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of Latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) or blood tests.
Prevention of TB involves screening those at high risk, early detection and treatment of cases, and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Those at high risk include household, workplace, and social contacts of people with active TB. Treatment requires the use of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem, with increasing rates of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).
In 2018, one quarter of the world's population was thought to have a latent infection of TB. New infections occur in about 1% of the population each year. In 2020, an estimated 10 million people developed active TB, resulting in 1.5 million deaths, making it the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease after COVID-19. As of 2018, most TB cases occurred in the regions of South-East Asia (44%), Africa (24%), and the Western Pacific (18%), with more than 50% of cases being diagnosed in seven countries: India (27%), China (9%), Indonesia (8%), the Philippines (6%), Pakistan (6%), Nigeria (4%), and Bangladesh (4%). By 2021, the number of new cases each year was decreasing by around 2% annually. About 80% of people in many Asian and African countries test positive, while 5–10% of people in the United States test positive via the tuberculin test. Tuberculosis has been present in humans since ancient times.
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