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Alternative decimal expansion of 1 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In mathematics, **0.999...** (also written as **0.9**, **0.**, or **0.(9)**) denotes the smallest number greater than every number in the sequence (0.9, 0.99, 0.999, ...). It can be proved that this number is 1; that is,

Despite common misconceptions, 0.999... is not "almost exactly 1" or "very, very nearly but not quite 1"; rather, 0.999... and "1" are *exactly* the same number.

An elementary proof is given below that involves only elementary arithmetic and the fact that there is no positive real number less than all 1/10^{n}, where *n* is a natural number, a property that results immediately from the Archimedean property of the real numbers.

There are many other ways of showing this equality, from intuitive arguments to mathematically rigorous proofs. The intuitive arguments are generally based on properties of finite decimals that are extended without proof to infinite decimals. The proofs are generally based on basic properties of real numbers and methods of calculus, such as series and limits. A question studied in mathematics education is why some people reject this equality.

In other number systems, 0.999... can have the same meaning, a different definition, or be undefined. Every nonzero terminating decimal has two equal representations (for example, 8.32000... and 8.31999...). Having values with multiple representations is a feature of all positional numeral systems that represent the real numbers.

It is possible to prove the equation 0.999... = 1 using just the mathematical tools of comparison and addition of (finite) decimal numbers, without any reference to more advanced topics such as series and limits. The proof given below is a direct formalization of the intuitive fact that, if one draws 0.9, 0.99, 0.999, etc. on the number line, there is no room left for placing a number between them and 1. The meaning of the notation 0.999... is the least point on the number line lying to the right of all of the numbers 0.9, 0.99, 0.999, etc. Because there is ultimately no room between 1 and these numbers, the point 1 must be this least point, and so 0.999... = 1.

If one places 0.9, 0.99, 0.999, etc. on the number line, one sees immediately that all these points are to the left of 1, and that they get closer and closer to 1. For any number that is less than 1, the sequence 0.9, 0.99, 0.999, and so on will eventually reach a number larger than . So, it does not make sense to identify 0.999... with any number smaller than 1. Meanwhile, every number larger than 1 will be larger than any decimal of the form 0.999...9 for any finite number of nines. Therefore, 0.999... cannot be identified with any number larger than 1, either. Because 0.999... cannot be bigger than 1 or smaller than 1, it must equal 1 if it is to be any real number at all.^{[1]}^{[2]}

Denote by 0.(9)_{n} the number 0.999...9, with nines after the decimal point. Thus 0.(9)_{1} = 0.9, 0.(9)_{2} = 0.99, 0.(9)_{3} = 0.999, and so on. One has 1 − 0.(9)_{1} = 0.1 = , 1 − 0.(9)_{2} = 0.01 = , and so on; that is, 1 − 0.(9)_{n} = for every natural number .

Let be a number not greater than 1 and greater than 0.9, 0.99, 0.999, etc.; that is, 0.(9)_{n} < ≤ 1, for every . By subtracting these inequalities from 1, one gets 0 ≤ 1 − < .

The end of the proof requires that there is no positive number that is less than for all . This is one version of the Archimedean property, which is true for real numbers.^{[3]}^{[4]}

This property implies thus that the left above inequality cannot be strict; thus = 1 and 1 is the smallest number that is greater than all 0.9, 0.99, 0.999, etc. That is, 1 = 0.999....

This proof relies on the Archimedean property of rational and real numbers. Real numbers may be enlarged into number systems, such as hyperreal numbers, with infinitely small numbers (infinitesimals) and infinitely large numbers (infinite numbers).^{[5]}^{[6]} When using such systems, the notation 0.999... is generally not used, as there is no smallest number among the numbers larger than all 0.(9)_{n}.^{[lower-alpha 1]}

Part of what this argument shows is that there is a least upper bound of the sequence 0.9, 0.99, 0.999, etc.: the smallest number that is greater than all of the terms of the sequence. One of the axioms of the real number system is the completeness axiom, which states that every bounded sequence has a least upper bound.^{[7]}^{[8]} This least upper bound is one way to define infinite decimal expansions: the real number represented by an infinite decimal is the least upper bound of its finite truncations.^{[9]} The argument here does not need to assume completeness to be valid, because it shows that this particular sequence of rational numbers has a least upper bound and that this least upper bound is equal to one.

Many algebraic arguments have been provided, which suggest that 1 = 0.999... . They are not rigorous mathematical proofs since they are typically based on the assumption that the rules for adding and multiplying finite decimals extend to infinite decimals. The extension of these rules to infinite decimals is both intuitive and correct, but it requires justification.

Simple algebraic illustrations of equality are a subject of pedagogical discussion and critique. Byers (2007) discusses the argument that, in elementary school, one is taught that = 0.333..., so, ignoring all essential subtleties, "multiplying" this identity by 3 gives 1 = 0.999.... He further says that this argument is unconvincing, because of an unresolved ambiguity over the meaning of the equals sign; a student might think, "It surely does not mean that the number 1 is identical to that which is meant by the notation 0.999... ." Most undergraduate mathematics majors encountered by Byers feel that while 0.999... is "very close" to 1 on the strength of this argument, with some even saying that it is "infinitely close", they are not ready to say that it is equal to 1.^{[10]} Richman (1999) discusses how "this argument gets its force from the fact that most people have been indoctrinated to accept the first equation without thinking", but also suggests that the argument may lead skeptics to question this assumption.^{[11]}

Byers also presents the following argument.

Students who did not accept the first argument sometimes accept the second argument, but, in Byers's opinion, still have not resolved the ambiguity, and therefore do not understand the representation of infinite decimals. Peressini & Peressini (2007), presenting the same argument, also state that it does not explain the equality, indicating that such an explanation would likely involve concepts of infinity and completeness.^{[12]} Baldwin & Norton (2012), citing Katz & Katz (2010a), also conclude that the treatment of the identity based on such arguments as these, without the formal concept of a limit, is premature.^{[13]} Cheng (2023) concurs, arguing that knowing one can multiply 0.999... by 10 by shifting the decimal point presumes an answer to the deeper question of how one gives a meaning to the expression 0.999... at all.^{[14]}

The same argument is also given by Richman (1999), who notes that skeptics may question whether is cancellable – that is, whether it makes sense to subtract from both sides.^{[11]}

Real analysis is the study of the logical underpinnings of calculus, including the behavior of sequences and series of real numbers.^{[15]} The proofs in this section establish 0.999... = 1 using techniques familiar from real analysis.

A common development of decimal expansions is to define them as sums of infinite series. In general:

For 0.999... one can apply the convergence theorem concerning geometric series, stating that if < 1, then:^{[16]}

Since 0.999... is such a sum with and common ratio , the theorem makes short work of the question:
This proof appears as early as 1770 in Leonhard Euler's *Elements of Algebra*.^{[17]}

The sum of a geometric series is itself a result even older than Euler. A typical 18th-century derivation used a term-by-term manipulation similar to the algebraic proof given above, and as late as 1811, Bonnycastle's textbook *An Introduction to Algebra* uses such an argument for geometric series to justify the same maneuver on 0.999... .^{[18]} A 19th-century reaction against such liberal summation methods resulted in the definition that still dominates today: the sum of a series is *defined* to be the limit of the sequence of its partial sums. A corresponding proof of the theorem explicitly computes that sequence; it can be found in any proof-based introduction to calculus or analysis.^{[19]}

A sequence (, , , ...) has the value as its limit if the distance becomes arbitrarily small as increases. The statement that 0.999... = 1 can itself be interpreted and proven as a limit:^{[lower-alpha 2]}
The first two equalities can be interpreted as symbol shorthand definitions. The remaining equalities can be proven. The last step, that 10^{n} approaches 0 as approaches infinity (), is often justified by the Archimedean property of the real numbers. This limit-based attitude towards 0.999... is often put in more evocative but less precise terms. For example, the 1846 textbook *The University Arithmetic* explains, ".999 +, continued to infinity = 1, because every annexation of a 9 brings the value closer to 1"; the 1895 *Arithmetic for Schools* says, "when a large number of 9s is taken, the difference between 1 and .99999... becomes inconceivably small".^{[20]} Such heuristics are often incorrectly interpreted by students as implying that 0.999... itself is less than 1.^{[21]}

The series definition above defines the real number named by a decimal expansion. A complementary approach is tailored to the opposite process: for a given real number, define the decimal expansion(s) to name it.

If a real number is known to lie in the closed interval [0, 10] (that is, it is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 10), one can imagine dividing that interval into ten pieces that overlap only at their endpoints: [0, 1], [1, 2], [2, 3], and so on up to [9, 10]. The number must belong to one of these; if it belongs to [2, 3], then one records the digit "2" and subdivides that interval into [2, 2.1], [2.1, 2.2], ..., [2.8, 2.9], [2.9, 3]. Continuing this process yields an infinite sequence of nested intervals, labeled by an infinite sequence of digits , , , ..., and one writes

In this formalism, the identities 1 = 0.999... and 1 = 1.000... reflect, respectively, the fact that 1 lies in both [0, 1]. and [1, 2], so one can choose either subinterval when finding its digits. To ensure that this notation does not abuse the "=" sign, one needs a way to reconstruct a unique real number for each decimal. This can be done with limits, but other constructions continue with the ordering theme.^{[22]}

One straightforward choice is the nested intervals theorem, which guarantees that given a sequence of nested, closed intervals whose lengths become arbitrarily small, the intervals contain exactly one real number in their intersection. So , , , ... is defined to be the unique number contained within all the intervals [, + 1], [, + 0.1], and so on. 0.999... is then the unique real number that lies in all of the intervals [0, 1], [0.9, 1], [0.99, 1], and [0.99...9, 1] for every finite string of 9s. Since 1 is an element of each of these intervals, 0.999... = 1.^{[23]}

The nested intervals theorem is usually founded upon a more fundamental characteristic of the real numbers: the existence of least upper bounds or *suprema*. To directly exploit these objects, one may define ... to be the least upper bound of the set of approximants , , , ... .^{[24]} One can then show that this definition (or the nested intervals definition) is consistent with the subdivision procedure, implying 0.999... = 1 again. Tom Apostol concludes, "the fact that a real number might have two different decimal representations is merely a reflection of the fact that two different sets of real numbers can have the same supremum."^{[25]}

Some approaches explicitly define real numbers to be certain structures built upon the rational numbers, using axiomatic set theory. The natural numbers {0, 1, 2, 3, ...} begin with 0 and continue upwards so that every number has a successor. One can extend the natural numbers with their negatives to give all the integers, and to further extend to ratios, giving the rational numbers. These number systems are accompanied by the arithmetic of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.^{[26]}^{[27]} More subtly, they include ordering, so that one number can be compared to another and found to be less than, greater than, or equal to another number.^{[28]}

The step from rationals to reals is a major extension. There are at least two popular ways to achieve this step, both published in 1872: Dedekind cuts and Cauchy sequences. Proofs that 0.999... = 1 that directly uses these constructions are not found in textbooks on real analysis, where the modern trend for the last few decades has been to use an axiomatic analysis. Even when a construction is offered, it is usually applied toward proving the axioms of the real numbers, which then support the above proofs. However, several authors express the idea that starting with a construction is more logically appropriate, and the resulting proofs are more self-contained.^{[lower-alpha 3]}

In the Dedekind cut approach, each real number is defined as the infinite set of all rational numbers less than .^{[lower-alpha 4]} In particular, the real number 1 is the set of all rational numbers that are less than 1.^{[lower-alpha 5]} Every positive decimal expansion easily determines a Dedekind cut: the set of rational numbers that are less than some stage of the expansion. So the real number 0.999... is the set of rational numbers such that < 0, or < 0.9, or < 0.99, or is less than some other number of the form^{[29]}

Every element of 0.999... is less than 1, so it is an element of the real number 1. Conversely, all elements of 1 are rational numbers that can be written as with and . This implies and thus

Since by the definition above, every element of 1 is also an element of 0.999..., and, combined with the proof above that every element of 0.999... is also an element of 1, the sets 0.999... and 1 contain the same rational numbers, and are therefore the same set, that is, 0.999... = 1.

The definition of real numbers as Dedekind cuts was first published by Richard Dedekind in 1872.^{[30]}
The above approach to assigning a real number to each decimal expansion is due to an expository paper titled "Is 0.999 ... = 1?" by Fred Richman in *Mathematics Magazine*.^{[11]} Richman notes that taking Dedekind cuts in any dense subset of the rational numbers yields the same results; in particular, he uses decimal fractions, for which the proof is more immediate. He also notes that typically the definitions allow { | < 1} to be a cut but not { | ≤ 1} (or vice versa).^{[31]} A further modification of the procedure leads to a different structure where the two are not equal. Although it is consistent, many of the common rules of decimal arithmetic no longer hold, for example, the fraction has no representation; see *§ Alternative number systems* below.

Another approach is to define a real number as the limit of a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers. This construction of the real numbers uses the ordering of rationals less directly. First, the distance between and is defined as the absolute value , where the absolute value is defined as the maximum of and , thus never negative. Then the reals are defined to be the sequences of rationals that have the Cauchy sequence property using this distance. That is, in the sequence , , , ..., a mapping from natural numbers to rationals, for any positive rational there is an such that for all ; the distance between terms becomes smaller than any positive rational.^{[32]}

If and are two Cauchy sequences, then they are defined to be equal as real numbers if the sequence has the limit 0. Truncations of the decimal number ... generate a sequence of rationals, which is Cauchy; this is taken to define the real value of the number.^{[33]} Thus in this formalism the task is to show that the sequence of rational numbers
has a limit 0. Considering the th term of the sequence, for , it must therefore be shown that
This can be proved by the definition of a limit. So again, 0.999... = 1.^{[34]}

The definition of real numbers as Cauchy sequences was first published separately by Eduard Heine and Georg Cantor, also in 1872.^{[30]} The above approach to decimal expansions, including the proof that 0.999... = 1, closely follows Griffiths & Hilton's 1970 work *A comprehensive textbook of classical mathematics: A contemporary interpretation*.^{[35]}

Commonly in secondary schools' mathematics education, the real numbers are constructed by defining a number using an integer followed by a radix point and an infinite sequence written out as a string to represent the fractional part of any given real number. In this construction, the set of any combination of an integer and digits after the decimal point (or radix point in non-base 10 systems) is the set of real numbers. This construction can be rigorously shown to satisfy all of the real axioms after defining an equivalence relation over the set that defines 1 =_{eq} 0.999... as well as for any other nonzero decimals with only finitely many nonzero terms in the decimal string with its trailing 9s version.^{[36]} With this construction of the reals, all proofs of the statement "1 = 0.999..." can be viewed as implicitly assuming equality when any operations are performed on the real numbers.

One of the notions that can resolve the issue is the requirement that real numbers be densely ordered. Dense ordering implies that if there is no new element strictly between two elements of the set, the two elements must be considered equal. Therefore, if 0.99999... were to be different from 1, there would have to be another real number in between them but there is none: a single digit cannot be changed in either of the two to obtain such a number.^{[37]}

The result that 0.999... = 1 generalizes readily in two ways. First, every nonzero number with a finite decimal notation (equivalently, endless trailing 0s) has a counterpart with trailing 9s. For example, 0.24999... equals 0.25, exactly as in the special case considered. These numbers are exactly the decimal fractions, and they are dense.^{[38]}^{[9]}

Second, a comparable theorem applies in each radix or base. For example, in base 2 (the binary numeral system) 0.111... equals 1, and in base 3 (the ternary numeral system) 0.222... equals 1. In general, any terminating base expression has a counterpart with repeated trailing digits equal to − 1. Textbooks of real analysis are likely to skip the example of 0.999... and present one or both of these generalizations from the start.^{[39]}

Alternative representations of 1 also occur in non-integer bases. For example, in the golden ratio base, the two standard representations are 1.000... and 0.101010..., and there are infinitely many more representations that include adjacent 1s. Generally, for almost all between 1 and 2, there are uncountably many base- expansions of 1. In contrast, there are still uncountably many , including all natural numbers greater than 1, for which there is only one base- expansion of 1, other than the trivial 1.000... . This result was first obtained by Paul Erdős, Miklos Horváth, and István Joó around 1990. In 1998 Vilmos Komornik and Paola Loreti determined the smallest such base, the Komornik–Loreti constant = 1.787231650... . In this base, 1 = 0.11010011001011010010110011010011...; the digits are given by the Thue–Morse sequence, which does not repeat.^{[40]}

A more far-reaching generalization addresses the most general positional numeral systems. They too have multiple representations, and in some sense, the difficulties are even worse. For example:^{[41]}

- In the balanced ternary system, = 0.111... = 1.111....
- In the reverse factorial number system (using bases 2!, 3!, 4!, ... for positions
*after*the decimal point), 1 = 1.000... = 0.1234... .

Petkovšek (1990) has proven that for any positional system that names all the real numbers, the set of reals with multiple representations is always dense. He calls the proof "an instructive exercise in elementary point-set topology"; it involves viewing sets of positional values as Stone spaces and noticing that their real representations are given by continuous functions.^{[42]}

One application of 0.999... as a representation of 1 occurs in elementary number theory. In 1802, H. Goodwyn published an observation on the appearance of 9s in the repeating-decimal representations of fractions whose denominators are certain prime numbers.^{[43]} Examples include:

- = 0.142857 and 142 + 857 = 999.
- = 0.01369863 and 0136 + 9863 = 9999.

E. Midy proved a general result about such fractions, now called Midy's theorem, in 1836. The publication was obscure, and it is unclear whether his proof directly involved 0.999..., but at least one modern proof by William G. Leavitt does. If it can be proved that if a decimal of the form ... is a positive integer, then it must be 0.999..., which is then the source of the 9s in the theorem.^{[44]} Investigations in this direction can motivate such concepts as greatest common divisors, modular arithmetic, Fermat primes, order of group elements, and quadratic reciprocity.^{[45]}

Returning to real analysis, the base-3 analogue 0.222... = 1 plays a key role in the characterization of one of the simplest fractals, the middle-thirds Cantor set: a point in the unit interval lies in the Cantor set if and only if it can be represented in ternary using only the digits 0 and 2.

The th digit of the representation reflects the position of the point in the th stage of the construction. For example, the point is given the usual representation of 0.2 or 0.2000..., since it lies to the right of the first deletion and the left of every deletion thereafter. The point is represented not as 0.1 but as 0.0222..., since it lies to the left of the first deletion and the right of every deletion thereafter.^{[46]}

Repeating nines also turns up in yet another of Georg Cantor's works. They must be taken into account to construct a valid proof, applying his 1891 diagonal argument to decimal expansions, of the uncountability of the unit interval. Such a proof needs to be able to declare certain pairs of real numbers to be different based on their decimal expansions, so one needs to avoid pairs like 0.2 and 0.1999... A simple method represents all numbers with nonterminating expansions; the opposite method rules out repeating nines.^{[lower-alpha 6]} A variant that may be closer to Cantor's original argument uses base 2, and by turning base-3 expansions into base-2 expansions, one can prove the uncountability of the Cantor set as well.^{[47]}

Students of mathematics often reject the equality of 0.999... and 1, for reasons ranging from their disparate appearance to deep misgivings over the limit concept and disagreements over the nature of infinitesimals. There are many common contributing factors to the confusion:

- Students are often "mentally committed to the notion that a number can be represented in one and only one way by a decimal". Seeing two manifestly different decimals representing the same number appears to be a paradox, which is amplified by the appearance of the seemingly well-understood number 1.
^{[lower-alpha 7]} - Some students interpret "0.999..." (or similar notation) as a large but finite string of 9s, possibly with a variable, unspecified length. If they accept an infinite string of nines, they may still expect a last 9 "at infinity".
^{[48]} - Intuition and ambiguous teaching lead students to think of the limit of a sequence as a kind of infinite process rather than a fixed value since a sequence need not reach its limit. Where students accept the difference between a sequence of numbers and its limit, they might read "0.999..." as meaning the sequence rather than its limit.
^{[49]}

These ideas are mistaken in the context of the standard real numbers, although some may be valid in other number systems, either invented for their general mathematical utility or as instructive counterexamples to better understand 0.999...; see *§ In alternative number systems* below.

Many of these explanations were found by David Tall, who has studied characteristics of teaching and cognition that lead to some of the misunderstandings he has encountered with his college students. Interviewing his students to determine why the vast majority initially rejected the equality, he found that "students continued to conceive of 0.999... as a sequence of numbers getting closer and closer to 1 and not a fixed value, because 'you haven't specified how many places there are' or 'it is the nearest possible decimal below 1'".^{[21]}

The elementary argument of multiplying 0.333... = by 3 can convince reluctant students that 0.999... = 1. Still, when confronted with the conflict between their belief in the first equation and their disbelief in the second, some students either begin to disbelieve the first equation or simply become frustrated.^{[50]} Nor are more sophisticated methods foolproof: students who are fully capable of applying rigorous definitions may still fall back on intuitive images when they are surprised by a result in advanced mathematics, including 0.999... . For example, one real analysis student was able to prove that 0.333... = using a supremum definition but then insisted that 0.999... < 1 based on her earlier understanding of long division.^{[51]} Others still can prove that = 0.333..., but, upon being confronted by the fractional proof, insist that "logic" supersedes the mathematical calculations.

Mazur (2005) tells the tale of an otherwise brilliant calculus student of his who "challenged almost everything I said in class but never questioned his calculator", and who had come to believe that nine digits are all one needs to do mathematics, including calculating the square root of 23. The student remained uncomfortable with a limiting argument that 9.99... = 10, calling it a "wildly imagined infinite growing process".^{[52]}

As part of the APOS Theory of mathematical learning, Dubinsky et al. (2005) propose that students who conceive of 0.999... as a finite, indeterminate string with an infinitely small distance from 1 have "not yet constructed a complete process conception of the infinite decimal". Other students who have a complete process conception of 0.999... may not yet be able to "encapsulate" that process into an "object conception", like the object conception they have of 1, and so they view the process 0.999... and the object 1 as incompatible. They also link this mental ability of encapsulation to viewing as a number in its own right and to dealing with the set of natural numbers as a whole.^{[53]}

With the rise of the Internet, debates about 0.999... have become commonplace on newsgroups and message boards, including many that nominally have little to do with mathematics. In the newsgroup sci.math, arguing over 0.999... is described as a "popular sport", and it is one of the questions answered in its FAQ.^{[54]}^{[55]} The FAQ briefly covers , multiplication by 10, and limits, and it alludes to Cauchy sequences as well.

A 2003 edition of the general-interest newspaper column *The Straight Dope* discusses 0.999... via and limits, saying of misconceptions,

The lower primate in us still resists, saying: .999~ doesn't really represent a

number, then, but aprocess. To find a number we have to halt the process, at which point the .999~ = 1 thing falls apart. Nonsense.^{[56]}

A *Slate* article reports that the concept of 0.999... is "hotly disputed on websites ranging from *World of Warcraft* message boards to Ayn Rand forums".^{[57]} In the same vein, the question of 0.999... proved such a popular topic in the first seven years of Blizzard Entertainment's Battle.net forums that the company issued a "press release" on April Fools' Day 2004 that it is 1:

We are very excited to close the book on this subject once and for all. We've witnessed the heartache and concern over whether .999~ does or does not equal 1, and we're proud that the following proof finally and conclusively addresses the issue for our customers.

^{[58]}

Two proofs are then offered, based on limits and multiplication by 10.

0.999... features also in mathematical jokes, such as:^{[59]}

Q: How many mathematicians does it take to screw in a lightbulb?

A: 0.999999....

Although the real numbers form an extremely useful number system, the decision to interpret the notation "0.999..." as naming a real number is ultimately a convention, and Timothy Gowers argues in *Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction* that the resulting identity 0.999... = 1 is a convention as well:

However, it is by no means an arbitrary convention, because not adopting it forces one either to invent strange new objects or to abandon some of the familiar rules of arithmetic.

^{[60]}

Some proofs that 0.999... = 1 rely on the Archimedean property of the real numbers: that there are no nonzero infinitesimals. Specifically, the difference 1 − 0.999... must be smaller than any positive rational number, so it must be an infinitesimal; but since the reals do not contain nonzero infinitesimals, the difference is zero, and therefore the two values are the same.

However, there are mathematically coherent ordered algebraic structures, including various alternatives to the real numbers, which are non-Archimedean. Non-standard analysis provides a number system with a full array of infinitesimals (and their inverses).^{[lower-alpha 8]} A. H. Lightstone developed a decimal expansion for hyperreal numbers in (0, 1)^{∗}. Lightstone shows how to associate each number with a sequence of digits,
indexed by the hypernatural numbers. While he does not directly discuss 0.999..., he shows the real number is represented by 0.333...;...333..., which is a consequence of the transfer principle. As a consequence the number 0.999...;...999... = 1. With this type of decimal representation, not every expansion represents a number. In particular "0.333...;...000..." and "0.999...;...000..." do not correspond to any number.^{[61]}

The standard definition of the number 0.999... is the limit of the sequence 0.9, 0.99, 0.999, ... . A different definition involves an *ultralimit*, i.e., the equivalence class [(0.9, 0.99, 0.999, ...)] of this sequence in the ultrapower construction, which is a number that falls short of 1 by an infinitesimal amount.^{[62]} More generally, the hyperreal number = 0.999...;...999000..., with last digit 9 at infinite hypernatural rank , satisfies a strict inequality . Accordingly, an alternative interpretation for "zero followed by infinitely many 9s" could be^{[63]}
All such interpretations of "0.999..." are infinitely close to 1. Ian Stewart characterizes this interpretation as an "entirely reasonable" way to rigorously justify the intuition that "there's a little bit missing" from 1 in 0.999....^{[lower-alpha 9]} Along with Katz & Katz (2010b), Ely (2010) also questions the assumption that students' ideas about 0.999... < 1 are erroneous intuitions about the real numbers, interpreting them rather as *nonstandard* intuitions that could be valuable in the learning of calculus.^{[64]}

Combinatorial game theory provides a generalized concept of number that encompasses the real numbers and much more besides.^{[65]} For example, in 1974, Elwyn Berlekamp described a correspondence between strings of red and blue segments in Hackenbush and binary expansions of real numbers, motivated by the idea of data compression. For example, the value of the Hackenbush string LRRLRLRL... is 0.010101..._{2} = . However, the value of LRLLL... (corresponding to 0.111..._{2} is infinitesimally less than 1. The difference between the two is the surreal number , where is the first infinite ordinal; the relevant game is LRRRR... or 0.000..._{2}.^{[lower-alpha 10]}

This is true of the binary expansions of many rational numbers, where the values of the numbers are equal but the corresponding binary tree paths are different. For example, 0.10111..._{2} = 0.11000..._{2}, which are both equal to , but the first representation corresponds to the binary tree path LRLRLLL..., while the second corresponds to the different path LRLLRRR... .

Another manner in which the proofs might be undermined is if 1 − 0.999... simply does not exist because subtraction is not always possible. Mathematical structures with an addition operation but not a subtraction operation include commutative semigroups, commutative monoids, and semirings. Richman (1999) considers two such systems, designed so that 0.999... < 1.^{[11]}

First, Richman (1999) defines a nonnegative *decimal number* to be a literal decimal expansion. He defines the lexicographical order and an addition operation, noting that 0.999... < 1 simply because 0 < 1 in the ones place, but for any nonterminating , one has 0.999... + = 1 + . So one peculiarity of the decimal numbers is that addition cannot always be canceled; another is that no decimal number corresponds to . After defining multiplication, the decimal numbers form a positive, totally ordered, commutative semiring.^{[66]}

In the process of defining multiplication, Richman also defines another system he calls "cut ", which is the set of Dedekind cuts of decimal fractions. Ordinarily, this definition leads to the real numbers, but for a decimal fraction he allows both the cut (, ) and the "principal cut" (, ]. The result is that the real numbers are "living uneasily together with" the decimal fractions. Again 0.999... < 1. There are no positive infinitesimals in cut , but there is "a sort of negative infinitesimal", 0^{−}, which has no decimal expansion. He concludes that 0.999... = 1 + 0^{−}, while the equation "0.999... + = 1" has no solution.^{[lower-alpha 11]}

When asked about 0.999..., novices often believe there should be a "final 9", believing 1 − 0.999... to be a positive number which they write as "0.000...1". Whether or not that makes sense, the intuitive goal is clear: adding a 1 to the final 9 in 0.999... would carry all the 9s into 0s and leave a 1 in the ones place. Among other reasons, this idea fails because there is no "final 9" in 0.999... .^{[67]} However, there is a system that contains an infinite string of 9s including a last 9.

The -adic numbers are an alternative number system of interest in number theory. Like the real numbers, the -adic numbers can be built from the rational numbers via Cauchy sequences; the construction uses a different metric in which 0 is closer to , and much closer to , than it is to 1.^{[68]} The -adic numbers form a field for prime and a ring for other , including 10. So arithmetic can be performed in the -adics, and there are no infinitesimals.

In the 10-adic numbers, the analogues of decimal expansions run to the left. The 10-adic expansion ...999 does have a last 9, and it does not have a first 9. One can add 1 to the ones place, and it leaves behind only 0s after carrying through: 1 + ...999 = ...000 = 0, and so ...999 = −1.^{[69]} Another derivation uses a geometric series. The infinite series implied by "...999" does not converge in the real numbers, but it converges in the 10-adics, and so one can re-use the familiar formula:^{[70]}

Compare with the series in the section above. A third derivation was invented by a seventh-grader who was doubtful over her teacher's limiting argument that 0.999... = 1 but was inspired to take the multiply-by-10 proof above in the opposite direction: if = ...999, then 10 = ...990, so 10 = − 9, hence = −1 again.^{[69]}

As a final extension, since 0.999... = 1 (in the reals) and ...999 = −1 (in the 10-adics), then by "blind faith and unabashed juggling of symbols"^{[71]} one may add the two equations and arrive at ...999.999... = 0. This equation does not make sense either as a 10-adic expansion or an ordinary decimal expansion, but it turns out to be meaningful and true in the doubly infinite decimal expansion of the 10-adic solenoid, with eventually repeating left ends to represent the real numbers and eventually repeating right ends to represent the 10-adic numbers.^{[72]}

Zeno's paradoxes, particularly the paradox of the runner, are reminiscent of the apparent paradox that 0.999... and 1 are equal. The runner paradox can be mathematically modeled and then, like 0.999..., resolved using a geometric series. However, it is not clear whether this mathematical treatment addresses the underlying metaphysical issues Zeno was exploring.^{[73]}

Negative zero is another redundant feature of many ways of writing numbers. In number systems, such as real numbers, where "0" denotes the additive identity and is neither positive nor negative, the usual interpretation of "−0" is that it should denote the additive inverse of 0, which forces −0 = 0.^{[74]} Nonetheless, some scientific applications use separate positive and negative zeroes, as do some computing binary number systems (for example integers stored in the sign and magnitude or ones' complement formats, or floating point numbers as specified by the IEEE floating-point standard).^{[75]}

- The limit follows, for example, from Rudin (1976), p. 57, Theorem 3.20e. For a more direct approach, see also Finney, Weir & Giordano (2001), section 8.1, example 2(a), example 6(b).
- The historical synthesis is claimed by Griffiths & Hilton (1970), p. xiv and again by Pugh (2002), p. 10; both actually prefer Dedekind cuts to axioms. For the use of cuts in textbooks, see Pugh (2002), p. 17 or Rudin (1976), p. 17. For viewpoints on logic, see Pugh (2002), p. 10, Rudin (1976), p.ix, or Munkres (2000), p. 30.
- Enderton (1977), p. 113 qualifies this description: "The idea behind Dedekind cuts is that a real number
*x*can be named by giving an infinite set of rationals, namely all the rationals less than*x*. We will in effect define*x*to be the set of rationals smaller than*x*. To avoid circularity in the definition, we must be able to characterize the sets of rationals obtainable in this way ..." - Rudin (1976), pp. 17–20, Richman (1999), p. 399, or Enderton (1977), p. 119. To be precise, Rudin, Richman, and Enderton call this cut 1∗, 1
_{−}, and 1_{R}, respectively; all three identify it with the traditional real number 1. Note that what Rudin and Enderton call a Dedekind cut, Richman calls a "non-principal Dedekind cut". - Maor (1987), p. 60 and Mankiewicz (2000), p. 151 review the former method; Mankiewicz attributes it to Cantor, but the primary source is unclear. Munkres (2000), p. 50 mentions the latter method.
- Bunch (1982), p. 119; Tall & Schwarzenberger (1978), p. 6. The last suggestion is due to Burrell (1998), p. 28: "Perhaps the most reassuring of all numbers is 1 ... So it is particularly unsettling when someone tries to pass off 0.9~ as 1."
- For a full treatment of non-standard numbers, see Robinson (1996).
- Stewart (2009), p. 175; the full discussion of 0.999... is spread through pp. 172–175.
- Berlekamp, Conway & Guy (1982), pp. 79–80, 307–311 discuss 1 and 1/3 and touch on 1/
*ω*. The game for 0.111..._{2}follows directly from Berlekamp's Rule. - Richman (1999), pp. 398–400. Rudin (1976), p. 23 assigns this alternative construction (but over the rationals) as the last exercise of Chapter 1.