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Materialism

Allikas: Vikipeedia

Materialism on filosoofiasuund, mis peab esmaseks ainet. Tegelik maailm, objektiivne reaalsus (aine ehk mateeria) on põhiline ja teadvus tuleneb ainest. Materialistlikud õpetused peavad maailma olemuselt aineliseks.

Materialismile vastandlik filosoofiasuund on idealism, mis peab esmaseks teadvust. Marksistliku käsitluse kohaselt on materialismi ja idealismi vastuolu olnud põhiline kogu filosoofia ajaloo vältel.

Materialism on vastuolus idealismiga, sest materialism eitab maailma loomist ja hinge surematust. Materialismi üks tänapäeval levinumaid vorme on dialektiline ja ajalooline materialism, mille lõid Karl Marx ja Friedrich Engels. Dialektiline ja ajalooline materialism seletab looduse ja ühiskonna nähtusi teaduse saavutuste alusel. Materialismi ajaloos on tähtsal kohal antiikkreeka atomistika rajajad Leukippos ja Demokritos.

Materialismi ja idealismi vastandamine on levinud ka vaimufilosoofias, kus üks olulisemaid küsimusi on vaimse ja materiaalse vaheline seos ning nende ontoloogiline staatus.

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Materialism
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