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Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

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Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc.
Privat
IndustriFilm
Didirikan17 April 1924
PendiriMarcus Loew
Kantor
pusat
Los Angeles, California, AS
(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Inc.)
Tokoh
kunci
Gary Barber
(Chairman dan CEO)
ProdukGerakan Gambar
Program Televisi
PemilikAnchorage Capital Group (~35%)
Highland Capital Management (10%)
Solus Alternative Asset Management (10%)
Third Point LLC
Maglan Capital LP
Situs webmgm.com

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., atau MGM merupakan sebuah perusahaan multinasional yang menghasilkan berbagai macam produk film. Bermarkas di Los Angeles, California, Amerika Serikat. Didirikan pada tanggal 16 April 1924. Perusahaan ini mempekerjakan 1.440 karyawannya hingga tahun 2004.

Sejarah

Marcus Loew membeli perusahaan Metro Pictures Corporation (didirikan pada tahun 1916) dan Goldwyn Pictures (didirikan tahun 1917) untuk menyediakan pasokan film untuk rantai teater yang besar, Loew's Theatres. Namun, pembelian tersebut menciptakan sebuah kebutuhan bagi seseorang untuk mengawasi operasi baru besar-besaran Hollywood, sejak lama asisten Nicholas Schenck dibutuhkan di kota New York untuk mengawasi bioskop. Loew membahas situasi dengan membeli studio Mayer Pictures pada tanggal 16 April 1924.

Biasanya, akan dipresentasikan: "Louis B. Mayer presents a Metro-Goldwyn picture". Namun Mayer menambahkan namanya ke nama studio itu, sehingga menjadikan studio itu dan maskotnya, yakni Leo the Lion, dan motto "Ars Gratia Artis" sebagai merek MGM.

Sejak awal, MGM mengetuk ke arah penonton kebutuhan untuk kemewahan dan kecanggihan. Setelah mewariskan beberapa nama-nama besar dari perusahaan pendahulu mereka, Mayer dan Thalberg mulai sekaligus untuk membuat dan mempublikasikan sejumlah bintang baru, di antaranya Greta Garbo, John Gilbert, William Haines, Norma Shearer, dan Joan Crawford. Sejumlah orang lain yang dipekerjakan ialah Lon Chaney, William Powell, Buster Keaton, dan Wallace Beery.

MGM merupakan studio pertama yang memproduksi film berwarna dalam format Technicolor. Film berwarna pertamanya ialah The Uninvited Guest (1923), The Big Parade (1925), dan Ben–Hur (1925) sementara film bersuara pertama ialah The Rogue Song.

Pada tahun 1934, Hugh Harman dan Rudolph Ising mulai bekerja di MGM. Mereka juga menciptakan kartun Happy Harmonies. Pekerja lainnya ialah William Hanna dan Joseph Barbera. Pada waktu bekerja, mereka memproduksi kartun Tom and Jerry. Setelah tahun 1955 semua kartun itu difilmkan di layar lebar Cinemascope sampai MGM menutup divisi kartun pada tahun 1957.

Pada tahun 1959, MGM menikmati apa yang sangat mungkin mereka kesuksesan finansial terbesar dari tahun-tahun berikutnya, dengan rilis dari hampir empat jam epik Technicolor Ben-Hur. Pada tahun 1960, MGM membuka basis studio di Czechoslovakia dan mempekerjakan animator Gene Deitch untuk memproduksi rilis baru dari Tom and Jerry. Produksi tersebut kemudian diteruskan lagi di kota Hollywood, dan pada tahun 1967, MGM dibeli oleh Edgar Bronfman, Sr.. 2 tahun kemudian dibeli oleh Kirk Kerkorian.

Pada tahun 1981, MGM memperoleh United Artists. Nama MGM diubah menjadi "MGM/UA Entertainment Co."

Ted Turner, melalui Turner Broadcasting System, membeli MGM pada tahun 1986. Tapi karena kekhawatiran dalam komunitas keuangan atas beban utang dari perusahaan, ia terpaksa tujuh puluh empat hari kemudian (17 Oktober 1986) untuk menjual kembali sebagian besar MGM/UA untuk Kirk Kerkorian untuk sekitar $ 780 juta USD ($ 480 juta untuk United Artists dan $ 300 juta untuk logo MGM).

Ted Turner tetap memiliki film MGM pra-1986. Pada tahun 1987, MGM/UA resmi memakai nama yang terpisah, sehingga nama asli "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer" direstorasi. Pada tahun 1997, MGM membeli subsidiari film Metromedia, termasuk Orion Pictures.

Beberapa perusahaan bergolongan konsorsium berupaya untuk membeli perusahaan ini. Salah satunya ialah Comcast, Sony, Texas Pacific Group dan Providence Equity Partners.

Konsorsium tersebut mendapat pembagian saham MGM dengan jumlah berbeda-beda, namun film diedarkan lewat Columbia Pictures. Pada tahun 2006, MGM mengumumkan pengalihan output VCD atau DVD ke 20th Century Fox.

Film hasil produksi

Menara MGM di Los Angeles
Menara MGM di Los Angeles

1920-an

1930-an

  • The March Of Time (1930, unfinished musical, partially in Technicolor)
  • The Rogue Song (1930, MGM's first all-color talkie)
  • Anna Christie (1930)
  • The Divorcee (1930)
  • The Big House (1930)
  • Min and Bill (1930)
  • Good News (1930)
  • Lord Byron of Broadway (1930)
  • The Champ (1931, plus remake in 1979)
  • A Free Soul (1931)
  • Mata Hari (1931)
  • Grand Hotel (1932)
  • Tarzan the Ape Man (1932, plus sequels)
  • Freaks (1932)
  • Smilin' Through (1932)
  • Red-Headed Woman (1932)
  • Dancing Lady (1933)
  • Dinner at Eight (1933)
  • Queen Christina (1933)
  • The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1934, plus remake in 1956)
  • The Thin Man (1934, plus sequels)
  • Tarzan and His Mate (1934)
  • The Merry Widow (1934)
  • Viva Villa! (1934)
  • Hollywood Party (1934, first movie featuring MGM's "Tanner the Lion")
  • Babes in Toyland (1934)
  • The Cat and the Fiddle (1934)
  • Anna Karenina (1935)
  • A Night at the Opera (1935)
  • David Copperfield (1935)
  • Mutiny on the Bounty (1935, plus remake in 1962)
  • Naughty Marietta (1935)
  • Ah, Wilderness! (1935)
  • A Tale of Two Cities (1935)
  • Broadway Melody of 1936 (1935)
  • Romeo and Juliet (1936)
  • Rose Marie (1936)
  • San Francisco (1936)
  • Tarzan Escapes (1936)
  • Camille (1936)
  • The Great Ziegfeld (1936)
  • Libeled Lady (1936)
  • Maytime (1937)
  • A Day at the Races (1937)
  • Captains Courageous (1937)
  • The Good Earth (1937)
  • Conquest (1937)
  • Rosalie (1937)
  • The Firefly (1937)
  • The Girl of the Golden West (1938)
  • Test Pilot (1938)
  • A Christmas Carol (1938)
  • Sweethearts (1938)
  • Boys Town (1938)
  • Marie Antoinette (1938)
  • The Citadel (1938)
  • Captain and the Kids: The Movie (1939)
  • Babes in Arms (1939)
  • Tarzan Finds a Son! (1939)
  • At the Circus (1939)
  • Gone with the Wind (1939, distribution only)
  • The Wizard of Oz (1939)
  • The Stars Look Down (1939, distribution only)
  • Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939, plus remake in 1969)
  • The Women (1939)
  • Ninotchka (1939, plus remake in 1957)
  • It's a Wonderful World (1939)
  • Broadway Serenade (1939)
  • Tom and Jerry (1939)

1940-an

1950-an

  • A Life of Her Own (1950)
  • King Solomon's Mines (1950)
  • Annie Get Your Gun (1950)
  • Three Little Words (1950)
  • Nancy Goes to Rio (1950)
  • The Toast of New Orleans (1950)
  • Summer Stock (1950)
  • Father of the Bride (1950, plus 1951 sequel)
  • The Red Badge of Courage (1951)
  • Show Boat (1951)
  • An American in Paris (1951)
  • Royal Wedding* (1951)
  • Father's Little Dividend* (1951) (sequel to Father of the Bride)
  • Cause for Alarm!* (1951)
  • Vengeance Valley* (1951)
  • Royal Wedding (1951)
  • Angels in the Outfield (1951)
  • Quo Vadis (1951)
  • The Great Caruso (1951)
  • Singin' in the Rain (1952)
  • The Bad and the Beautiful (1952)
  • Ivanhoe (1952)
  • The Band Wagon (1953)
  • Dangerous When Wet* (1953)
  • Kiss Me, Kate (1953)
  • Knights of the Round Table (1953)
  • Julius Caesar (1953)
  • Mogambo (1953)
  • Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954)
  • The Student Prince (1954)
  • Brigadoon (1954)
  • Rhapsody (1954)
  • Athen (1954)
  • The Last Time I Saw Paris* (1954)
  • The Long, Long Trailer (1954)
  • Deep in My Heart (1954)
  • Blackboard Jungle (1955)
  • Hit the Deck (1955)
  • I'll Cry Tomorrow (1955)
  • Interrupted Melody (1955)
  • The Prodigal (1955)
  • Love Me or Leave Me (1955)
  • Kismet (1955)
  • Guys and Dolls (1955, original distributor, now owned by MGM through acquisition of The Samuel Goldwyn Company)
  • The Adventures of Quentin Durward (1955)
  • Forbidden Planet (1956)
  • High Society (1956, last movie featuring MGM's "Jackie the Lion") (musical remake of The Philadelphia Story)
  • The Teahouse of the August Moon (1956, last movie featuring MGM's "Tanner the Lion")
  • Jailhouse Rock (1957)
  • Raintree County (1957)
  • Silk Stockings (1957, first movie with MGM's "Leo the Lion") (musical remake of Ninotchka)
  • Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958)
  • Gigi (1958)
  • The Brothers Karamazov (1958)
  • Ben-Hur (1959, remake of 1925 film)
  • North by Northwest (1959)

1960-an

  • BUtterfield 8 (1960)
  • Where the Boys Are (1960)
  • Cimarron (1960)
  • The Last Voyage (1960)
  • King of Kings (1961)
  • How the West Was Won (1962)
  • Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1962)
  • The Courtship of Eddie's Father (1963)
  • The Haunting (1963)
  • The Yellow Rolls-Royce (1964)
  • Viva Las Vegas (1964)
  • The Americanization of Emily (1964)
  • The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1964)
  • The Cincinnati Kid (1965)
  • Doctor Zhivago (1965)
  • Blow-Up (1966) (distributor)
  • Grand Prix (1966)
  • The Glass Bottom Boat (1966)
  • Hot Rods to Hell (1967)
  • Point Blank (1967)
  • The Dirty Dozen (1967)
  • Dark of the Sun (1968)
  • 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
  • Ice Station Zebra (1968)
  • Where Eagles Dare (1968)
  • The Green Slime (1968)
  • Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1969)
  • A Boy Named Charlie Brown (1969)

1970-an

  • Kelly's Heroes (1970)
  • Brewster McCloud (1970)
  • House of Dark Shadows (1970)
  • Ryan's Daughter (1970)
  • Elvis: That's the Way It Is (1970)
  • Dirty Dingus Magee (1970)
  • The Phantom Tollbooth (1970)
  • Zabriskie Point (1970)
  • Night of Dark Shadows (1971)
  • Shaft (1971)
  • The Boy Friend (1971, co-production with EMI Films)
  • Savage Messiah (1972)
  • Private Parts (1972)
  • Night of the Lepus (1972)
  • Elvis On Tour (1972)
  • Soylent Green (1973)
  • Westworld (1973)
  • That's Entertainment! (1974)
  • The Passenger (1975)
  • The Wind and the Lion (1975, co-production with Columbia Pictures)
  • The Sunshine Boys (1975)
  • Logan's Run (1976)
  • That's Entertainment, Part II (1976)
  • Network (1976, co-production with United Artists)
  • The Goodbye Girl (1977, co-production with Warner Bros.)
  • Corvette Summer (1978)
  • Coma (1978)
  • The Champ (1979) (remake of 1931 film)

1980-an

  • Fame (1980)
  • Pennies From Heaven (1981)
  • Clash of the Titans (1981)
  • Tarzan, the Ape Man (1981)
  • Diner (1982)
  • Inchon (1982)
  • Pink Floyd The Wall (1982) (distributor)
  • Victor/Victoria (1982) (distributor, produced by Ladbrokes Entertainment)
  • Poltergeist (1982)
  • My Favorite Year (1982)
  • Brainstorm (1983)
  • A Christmas Story (1983)
  • Rock & Rule (1983)
  • The Hunger (1983)
  • Breakin' (1984, distribution)
  • 2010 (1984)
  • Gymkata (1985)
  • Poltergeist II: The Other Side (1986, first film after the Turner split, as all films starting here are still owned by MGM)
  • Spaceballs (1987)
  • Moonstruck (1987)
  • Overboard (1987)
  • A Fish Called Wanda (1988)
  • Killer Klowns From Outer Space (1988)
  • Poltergeist III (1988)
  • The January Man (1989)
  • For Queen and Country (1989) (distributor)
  • Leviathan (1989)
  • The Mighty Quinn (1989)
  • A Dry White Season (1989)

1990-an

  • The Russia House (1990)
  • Shattered (1991)
  • Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man (1991)
  • Thelma & Louise (1991)
  • The Cutting Edge (1992)
  • Of Mice and Men (1992)
  • Benny & Joon (1993)
  • Meteor Man (1993)
  • Blown Away (1994)
  • Getting Even with Dad (1994)
  • Stargate (1994, theatrical distributor only)
  • That's Entertainment! III (1994, only post-1986 MGM film to be distributed by Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. on Video & DVD)
  • Get Shorty (1995)
  • Species (1995)
  • Kerikil serta Penguin (1995)
  • All Dogs Go to Heaven 2 (1996)
  • Kingpin (1996, co-production with Rysher Entertainment)
  • Turbulence (1997) (co-production with Rysher Entertainment)
  • Zeus and Roxanne (1997) (co-production with Rysher Entertainment)
  • Species II (1998)
  • The World Is Not Enough (1999)
  • The Thomas Crown Affair (1999)

2000-an

  • Supernova (2000)
  • Original Sin (2001)
  • Antitrust (2001)
  • Josie and the Pussycats (2001) (co-production with Universal Pictures)
  • Hannibal (2001, co-production with Universal Pictures and Dino De Laurentiis Company - DDLC)
  • Hart's War (2001)
  • Vampire Hunter D: Bloodlust (2001, distribution, with Urban Vision Entertainment)
  • Legally Blonde (2001, plus sequel in 2003)
  • Barbershop (2002)
  • Crocodile Hunter: Collision Course (2002)
  • Die Another Day (2002)
  • Rollerball (2002)
  • Windtalkers (2002)
  • Anything Else (2003) (UK Distribution only)
  • Luther (2003)
  • Agent Cody Banks (2003, plus sequel in 2004)
  • Good Boy! (2003)
  • Sakura Wars: The Movie (2003, with Geneon Entertainment)
  • De-Lovely (2004)
  • Agent Cody Banks 2: Destination London (2004)
  • Walking Tall (2004)
  • Swimming Upstream (2005)
  • Be Cool (2005)
  • Beauty Shop (2005)
  • The Brothers Grimm (2005) (co-production with Dimension Films)
  • Into the Blue (2005) (co-production with Columbia Pictures)
  • Yours, Mine and Ours (2005) (co-production with Paramount Pictures, Nickelodeon Movies, and Columbia Pictures)
  • The Amityville Horror (2005, with Dimension Films)
  • Dark Angel (2006, co-production with Dimension Films)
  • The Pink Panther (2006) (co-production with Columbia Pictures)
  • Basic Instinct 2 (2006) (co-production with Intermedia Films and C2 Pictures)
  • Lucky Number Slevin (2006, USA distribution only) (produced by The Weinstein Company)
  • Stormbreaker (2006, USA distribution only) (produced by The Weinstein Company and Isle of Man Film)
  • Casino Royale (2006) (co-production with Columbia Pictures)
  • Material Girls (2006)
  • Harsh Times (2006)
  • Rocky Balboa (2006) (co-production with Columbia Pictures and Revolution Studios)
  • Clerks II (2006) (USA theatrical distribution only, produced by The Weinstein Company)
  • Flyboys (2006) (distributor)
  • School For Scoundrels (2006, with Dimension Films) (Produced by The Weinstein Company)
  • Arthur and the Invisibles (2007) (USA theatrical distribution only)
  • Blood and Chocolate (2007, with Lakeshore Entertainment)
  • Premonition (2007) (co-production with TriStar Pictures and Hyde Park Entertainment)
  • The Flying Scotsman (2007) (distributor)
  • The Ex (USA distribution only) (produced by the The Weinstein Company)
  • 1408 (2007) (USA Distribution Only) (produced by Dimension Films, with The Weinstein Company)
  • Mr. Brooks (2007)
  • Who's Your Caddy? (2007) (USA distribution only; produced by Our Stories Films and Dimension Films)
  • Death at a Funeral (2007)
  • Rescue Dawn (2007)
  • The Feast of Love (2007)
  • Halloween (2007) (USA distribution only; produced by Dimension Films)
  • Lions for Lambs (2007) (distribution only; produced by United Artists, an MGM company)
  • Charlie Bartlett (2008)
  • Stargate: The Ark of Truth
  • Superhero Movie (USA Distribution only; produced by Dimension Films) (2008)
  • Pathology (produced by Lakeshore Entertainment) (2008)
  • Deal (produced by Tag Entertainment)
  • Stargate: Continuum (2008)
  • College (2008)
  • The Longshots (US Distribution only; produced by Dimension Films) (2008)
  • Vicky Cristina Barcelona (US Distribution Only; produced by Weinstein Company) (2008)
  • Igor (2008)
  • Quantum of Solace (2008) (co-produced with Columbia Pictures and EON Productions)
  • The Other End of the Line - November 14, 2008
  • Soul Men (Distribution Only; produced by Dimension Films)
  • Valkyrie (US Distribution only, co-distributed by United Artists)
  • The Pink Panther 2 (co-production with Columbia Pictures)
  • The Taking of Pelham 123 (co-production with Columbia Pictures and Relativity Media)
  • Fame (co-production with United Artists and Lakeshore Entertainment)

2010an

Peralatan

  • Orion Pictures
    Suatu perusahaan film yang dikemukakan dari Warner Bros. Perusahaan ini tutup karena mengalami kebangkrutan sejak 1998, dan hanya beroperasi sebagai unit dalam nama saja.
  • United Artists
    Suatu perusahaan film yang merupakan alatan tambahan MGM. Meruapakan subsidiari dari Transamerica sebelum 1981.

Kerjasama

Catatan kaki

  1. ^ "Logo MGM, CLG Wiki". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2009-01-30. Diakses tanggal 2009-01-31. 
  2. ^ "Trivia for Greed (1924)". IMDb. Diakses tanggal 2007-04-12. 

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