- Foster, S. (2007). Adventure Guide. China （頁面存檔備份，存於互聯網檔案館）. Hunter travel guides. Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing. p. 6-7 (cf., "Qin is perceived as 'China's first dynasty' and [... developed] writing.)
- Gernet, J. (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Clare, I. S. (1906). Library of universal history: containing a record of the human race from the earliest historical period to the present time; embracing a general survey of the progress of mankind in national and social life, civil government, religion, literature, science and art. New York: Union Book. Page 1519 (cf., Ancient history, as we have already seen, ended with the fall of the Western Roman Empire; [...])
- United Center for Research and Training in History. (1973). Bulgarian historical review. Sofia: Pub. House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences]. Page 43. (cf. ... in the history of Europe, which marks both the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages, is the fall of the Western Roman Empire.)
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