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閃米特語族

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閃米特語族
敘利亞-阿拉伯語族
地理分佈: 西亞北非非洲之角馬耳他
譜系學分類 亞非語系
  • 閃米特語族
原始語言: 原始閃米特語
分支:
南閃米特語支
語言代碼
ISO 639-2 / 5: sem
Glottolog semi1276[1]

閃米特語言的大致歷史分佈

閃米特語族,譯作閃語族塞姆語族閃米特語族 ,舊稱敘利亞-阿拉伯語族[2],是亞非語系之下的語族之一,起源於中東地區[3][4],其下屬語言約有3.3億人作為母語,分佈於西亞北非非洲之角,也有亞非語系僑民生活於歐洲北美,或高加索中亞

閃米特語族由格丁根歷史學校的成員於18世紀命名,「閃米特」一詞來源於希伯來聖經創世記,是諾亞的三個兒子之一,相傳是希伯來人亞述人的祖先[5]

現代所使用的其分支語言有阿拉伯語[6]希伯來語[7]阿拉姆語[8][9][10]阿姆哈拉語[11]提格里尼亞語[12]提格雷語馬耳他語[13]等。閃米特語族中使用人數最多的語言是現代標準阿拉伯語,而如果包括所有阿拉伯語變體的母語人口在內,阿拉伯語共有3.1億人作為母語,廣泛分佈在西亞、北非和東非地區[14]

閃米特語族下屬語言在詞法學上有一個被稱為「不連續形態」的顯著特徵,即詞彙的詞根並不是獨立的音節或單詞,而是多個互相分離的輔音(通常為三個),藉由相應的元音將分離的輔音詞根聯繫起來而組成新詞。例如,阿拉伯語中的k-t-b是與「寫」相關的詞根形式,用這個詞根組成的詞彙有كتابkitāb(書的單數),كتبkutub(書的複數)、كاتبkātib(作家的單數)和كتّابkuttāb(作家的複數)等。

分支

  • 東閃米特語支
  • 中閃米特語支
    • 阿拉姆語
      • 古阿拉姆語 (oar)
      • 阿拉姆語 (arc)
      • Armazic (xrm)
      • 東部
        • 中部
          • 東北部
            • Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (aii)
            • Lishanid Noshan (aij)
            • Bohtan Neo-Aramaic (bhn)
            • Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic (bjf)
            • Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (cld)
            • Hértevin (hrt)
            • Hulaulá (huy)
            • Koy Sanjaq Surat (kqd)
            • Lishana Deni (lsd)
            • Senaya (syn)
            • Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (tmr)
            • Lishán Didán (trg)
          • 西北部
          • 圖羅尤語 (tru)
        • 曼達語
          • 曼達語 (mid)
          • 古典曼達語 (myz)
        • 古典敘利亞語 (syc)
      • 西部
        • Jewish Palestinian Aramaic (jpa)
        • 西部現代亞拉姆語 (amw)
        • 薩馬利亞阿拉姆語 (sam)
    • 南部
      • 阿拉伯語 (ara)
        • 古代北阿拉比亞語 (xna)
        • 安達盧西亞阿拉伯語(在西班牙,Andalusian Arabic)(xaa)
        • 阿爾及利亞撒哈拉口語 (aao)
        • 塔吉克口語 (abh)
        • Arabic, Baharna Spoken (abv)
        • 美索不達米亞口語 (acm)
        • Arabic, Ta'izzi-Adeni Spoken (acq)
        • 希賈茲口語Arabic, Hijazi Spoken (acw)
        • 阿曼口語Arabic, Omani Spoken (acx)
        • 塞浦路斯口語Arabic, Cypriot Spoken (acy)
        • Arabic, Dhofari Spoken (adf)
        • 突尼斯口語 (aeb)
        • Arabic, Sa`idi Spoken (aec)
        • 波斯灣口語 (afb)
        • 南黎凡特口語 (ajp)
        • 猶太-突尼斯口語Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian (ajt)
        • 猶太-摩洛哥口語Arabic, Judeo-Moroccan (aju)
        • 北黎凡特口語 (apc)
        • 蘇丹口語 (apd)
        • 標準阿拉伯語 (arb)
        • 阿爾及利亞口語 (arq)
        • 納季德口語 (ars)
        • 摩洛哥口語 (ary)
        • 埃及口語 (arz)
        • 烏茲別克口語 (auz)
        • Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken (avl)
        • Arabic, Hadrami Spoken (ayh)
        • 利比亞口語 (ayl)
        • 薩那口語 (ayn)
        • 北美索不達米亞口語 (ayp)
        • 猶太-也門口語Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni (jye)
        • Hassaniyya (mey)
        • 馬耳他語 (mlt)
        • 乍得口語Arabic, Chadian Spoken (shu)
        • Arabic, Shihhi Spoken (ssh)
        • 猶太-伊拉克口語Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi (yhd)
        • Arabic, Judeo-Tripolitanian (yud)
      • 迦南語言
    • 未分類
  • 南閃米特語支

參考文獻

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (編). Semitic. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  2. ^ Kitto, John. A Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature. London: W. Clowes and Sons. 1845: 192. That important family of languages, of which the Arabic is the most cultivated and most widely-extended branch, has long wanted an appropriate common name. The term Oriental languages, which was exclusively applied to it from the time of Jerome down to the end of the last century, and which is even now not entirely abandoned, must always have been an unscientific one, inasmuch as the countries in which these languages prevailed are only the east in respect to Europe; and when Sanskrit, Chinese, and other idioms of the remoter East were brought within the reach of our research, it became palpably incorrect. Under a sense of this impropriety, Eichhorn英語Johann Gottfried Eichhorn was the first, as he says himself (Allg. Bibl. Biblioth. vi. 772), to introduce the name Semitic languages, which was soon generally adopted, and which is the most usual one at the present day. [...] In modern times, however, the very appropriate designation Syro-Arabian languages has been proposed by Dr. Prichard英語James Cowles Prichard, in his Physical History of Man. This term, [...] has the advantage of forming an exact counterpart to the name by which the only other great family of languages with which we are likely to bring the Syro-Arabian into relations of contrast or accordance, is now universally known—the Indo-Germanic. Like it, by taking up only the two extreme members of a whole sisterhood according to their geographical position when in their native seats, it embraces all the intermediate branches under a common band; and, like it, it constitutes a name which is not only at once intelligible, but one which in itself conveys a notion of that affinity between the sister dialects, which it is one of the objects of comparative philology to demonstrate and to apply. 
  3. ^ Bennett, Patrick R. Comparative Semitic Linguistics: A Manual. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns. 1998. 
  4. ^ Hetzron, Robert. The Semitic Languages. London/New York: Routledge. 1997. 
  5. ^ Baasten, Martin. A Note on the History of 'Semitic'. Hamlet on a Hill: Semitic and Greek Studies Presented to Professor T. Muraoka on the Occasion of His Sixty-fifth Birthday. Peeters Publishers. 2003: 57–73. ISBN 9789042912151. 
  6. ^ Jonathan, Owens. The Oxford Handbook of Arabic Linguistics. Oxford University Press. 2013: 2 [18 February 2014]. ISBN 0199344094. 
  7. ^ Modern Hebrew於《民族語》的連結(第18版,2015年)
  8. ^ ^ Jump up to: a b Assyrian Neo-Aramaic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  9. ^ Chaldean Neo-Aramaic at Ethnologue (14th ed., 2000).
  10. ^ ^ Turoyo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  11. ^ Amharic於《民族語》的連結(第18版,2015年)
  12. ^ Tigrinya於《民族語》的連結(第18版,2015年)
  13. ^ Ethnologue Entry for Maltese, 21st ed., 2018
  14. ^ Arabic. ethnologue.com. [14 April 2018]. 

外部連結

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閃米特語族
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