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五氟化碘

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五氟化碘
IUPAC名
iodine(V) fluoride
别名 氟化碘(V)
识别
CAS号 7783-66-6  ☒N
PubChem 522683
ChemSpider 455940
SMILES
InChI
InChIKey PJIYEPACCBMRLZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
EINECS 232-019-7
性质
化学式 IF5
摩尔质量 221.89 g·mol⁻¹
外观 淡黄色液体
密度 (液) 3.250 g/mL
熔点 9.43°C (282.58 K)
沸点 97.85°C (371.00 K)
结构
晶体结构 单斜
点群 C2/c
配位几何 四方锥
分子构型 四方锥[1]
危险性
MSDS External MSDS
主要危害 有毒,氧化性,腐蚀性
相关物质
相关化学品 七氟化碘五氟化氯
五氟化溴
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

五氟化碘分子式IF5),为氟化物,是密度为3.25 g/cm3的无色或黄色液体。1891年,它首次由Henri Moissan用固态在气态中燃烧而制得。[2] 虽然反应条件已经改良了,但这个放热反应仍被用来制成五氟化碘。[3][4]

I2 + 5 F2 → 2 IF5

制备

五氟化碘通常有以下几种制备方法[5]

  1. 碘代烷和氟气反应。
  2. 氟化银和碘反应。
  3. 碘酸钾四氟化硫反应。此法制备五氟化碘容易发生爆炸。
  4. 五氧化二碘四氟化硫反应。
  5. 氟气中燃烧:
I2 + 5 F2 → 2 IF5
此法是最常用的方法。

化学性质

五氟化碘是一个很强的氟化剂,具有很强的氧化性,与水会剧烈反应产生氢氟酸

五氟化碘与伯反应,加水后水解形成[6]

R-CH2-NH2 → R-CN

它还可以继续被氟气氟化成七氟化碘[7]

IF5 + F2 → IF7

参考资料

  1. ^ R. D. Durbank, G. R. Jones. Crystal structure of iodine pentafluoride at -80.deg.. Inorganic Chemistry. 1974, 13 (5): 421–439. doi:10.1021/ic50135a012. 
  2. ^ M. H. Moissan (1891). "Nouvelles Recherches sur le Fluor"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). Annales de chimie et de physique 6: 224-282. 
  3. ^ Otto Ruff英语Otto Ruff , Keim R. (1930). ""Das Jod-7-fluorid" (The iodine-7-fluoride)". Zeitschrift für Anorganische un Allgemeine Chemie 193 (1/2): 176-186. doi:10.1002/zaac.19301930117.
  4. ^ Ruff O., Keim R. Fluorierung von Verbindungen des Kohlenstoffs (Benzol und Tetrachlormethan mit Jod-5-fluorid, sowie Tetrachlormethan mit Fluor). Zeitschrift für Anorganische un Allgemeine Chemie. 1931, 201 (1): 245 – 258. doi:10.1002/zaac.19312010122. 
  5. ^ 气固法制备IF5工艺. 刘春雪 等. 化学工业与工程. 第30卷 第5期
  6. ^ T. E. Stevens. Rearrangement of Amides with Iodine Pentafluoride. J. Org. Chem. 1966, 31 (6): 2025 – 2026. doi:10.1021/jo01344a539. 
  7. ^ Ruff, O.; Keim, R. Das Jod-7-fluorid [The iodine-7-fluoride]. Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 1930, 193 (1): 176–186. doi:10.1002/zaac.19301930117 (德语). 
  • R. C. Lord, M. A. Lynch, W. C. Schumb, and E. J. Slowinski. The Vibrational Spectra and Structures of Iodine Pentafluoride and Heptafluoride. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1950, 72 (1): 522 – 527. doi:10.1021/ja01157a135. 
  • Max T. Rogers, John L. Speirs, H. Bradford Thompson, and Morton B. Panish. Iodine Pentafluoride, Freezing and Boiling Point, Heat of Vaporization and Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relations. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1954, 76 (19): 4843 – 4844. doi:10.1021/ja01648a022. 
  • Max T. Rogers, H. Bradford Thompson, and John L. Speirs. Dielectric Constants of Liquid Chlorine Trifluoride and Iodine Pentafluoride. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1954, 76 (19): 4841 – 4843. doi:10.1021/ja01648a021. 
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五氟化碘
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