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生理学(英语:physiology/ˌfɪziˈɒləi/; 来自古希腊语 φύσις (physis),意即:“nature, origin”,和 -λογία (-logia),意即:“study of” [1]) 是生物学的一门子领域,研究生物体及其各组成部分,在活体系统中化学物理的功能活动。





生理学的研究可以追溯到古印度文明[2][3] ,埃及有解剖研究但没有活体解剖。[4] 人体生理学作为医疗领域的研究可以追溯到至少公元前420的时间的希波克拉底,被称为医学之父。[5] 古希腊的亚里士多德开始将重点放在结构和功能之间的关系,直到盖伦(Galen, c. 126–199 AD)第一次使用实验来探测人体的功能。盖伦是实验生理学的奠基人。[6]

Jean Fernel(1497 - 1558),法国医师,引入physiology一词。[7]

在19世纪,生理知识开始积累比较快,特别是Matthias Schleiden和Theodor Schwann在1838年发表的细胞理论,指出生物体是由单位细胞组成。Claude Bernard(1813–1878)进一步发现内部环境的概念,

在20世纪,生物学家也感兴趣于,除了人类之外的生物功能,最后产生比较生理学和生态生理学等领域。[8] 在这些领域的重要人物,包括Knut Schmidt-Nielsen和George Bartholomew。最近,进化生理学已成为一个明显的分支学科。[9]


  1. ^ physiology. Online Etymology Dictionary. [2015-02-07]. (原始内容存档于2017-10-01). 
  2. ^ D. P. Burma and Maharani Chakravorty. From Physiology and Chemistry to Biochemistry. Pearson Education. : 8. 
  3. ^ Francis Zimmermann. The Jungle and the Aroma of Meats: An Ecological Theme in Hindu Medicine. Motilal Banarsidass publications. : 159. 
  4. ^ 存档副本. [2015-02-07]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-14). 
  5. ^ Physiology. Science Clarified. Advameg, Inc. [2010-08-29]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-12). 
  6. ^ Fell, C.; Pearson, F. Historical Perspectives of Thoracic Anatomy. Thoracic Surgery Clinics. November 2007, 17 (4): 443–8 [2015-02-07]. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2006.12.001. (原始内容存档于2021-04-12). 
  7. ^ Wilbur Applebaum. Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: From Copernicus to Newton. Routledge. : 344. 
  8. ^ Feder, ME; Bennett, AF; WW, Burggren; Huey, RB. New directions in ecological physiology. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1987. ISBN 978-0-521-34938-3. 
  9. ^ Garland, Jr, Theodore; Carter, P. A. Evolutionary physiology (PDF). Annual Review of Physiology. 1994, 56 (56): 579–621 [2015-02-07]. PMID 8010752. doi:10.1146/ (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2021-04-12). 



  • public information site sponsored by The American Physiological Society
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