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空穴

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当电子脱离氦原子核后,会留下一个空穴,这会导致氦原子带正电。
当电子脱离原子核后,会留下一个空穴,这会导致氦原子带正电。

空穴又称电洞电子孔[1](Electron hole)、正孔,在固体物理学中指共价键上流失一个电子,最后在共价键上留下空位的现象。

一个呈电中性原子,其正电的质子和负电的电子的数量是相等的。现在由于少了一个负电的电子,所以那里就会呈现出一个正电性的空位——空穴。当有外面一个电子进来掉进了空穴,就会发出电磁波——光子

空穴不是正电子,电子与正电子相遇湮灭时,所发出来的光子是非常高能的。那是两粒子的质量所完全转化出来的电磁波(通常会转出一对光子)。而电子掉入空穴所发出来的光子,其能量通常只有几个电子伏特

半导体由于禁带较窄,电子只需不多的能量就能从价带激发到导带,从而在价带中留下空穴。周围电子可以填补这个空穴,同时在原位置产生一个新的空穴,因此实际上的电子运动看起来就如同是空穴在移动。

在半导体的制备中,要在4价的本征半导体(纯等的晶体)的基础上掺杂。若掺入3价元素杂质(如等),则可产生大量空穴,获得P型半导体,又称空穴型半导体。空穴是P型半导体中的多数载流子

参考

  1. ^ 存档副本. [2020-07-18]. (原始内容存档于2020-08-02). 
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空穴
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