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防御素

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Monomeric and dimeric structures of human beta-defensin HBD-2
Monomeric and dimeric structures of human beta-defensin HBD-2

防御素(defensins)又称防御肽,是分子很小(15-20残基)、富含半胱氨酸的阳离子蛋白质,属于抗微生物肽的一类。存在于脊椎动物无脊椎动物。防御素有很强的抗细菌,真菌和具外套膜病毒作用。它们一般由15-20个氨基酸残基组成,包括6至8个保守的半胱氨酸残基。免疫系统的细胞含有这些肽协助杀死被吞噬的细菌,防御素存于嗜中性粒细胞和几乎所有的上皮细胞。大部分防御素的功能是一电子吸引力穿透微生物细胞膜,一旦嵌入,造成有胞膜不完整而至胞浆外溢。

类别

  • 防御素-α1
  • 防御素-α1α3
  • 防御素-α3
  • 防御素-α4
  • 防御素-α5
  • 防御素-α6;
  • β-防御素:分布最广泛.是由多种白细胞和上皮细胞分泌的.举例来说,他们可以发现在舌,皮肤,角膜,唾液腺,肾脏,食道和呼吸道.
  • 防御素-β1
  • 防御素-β4
  • 防御素-β103A
  • 防御素-β103B
  • 防御素-β107A
  • 防御素-β107B
  • 防御素-β110
  • 防御素-β133
  • θ-防御素:少见。目前为止,只在恒河猴的白细胞发现有θ-防御素。
  • 防御素-θ1

功能

直接杀死病原体 趋化吸引iDC,诱导其成熟,参与抗原呈递的过程 对细胞因子起调节作用

外部链接

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防御素
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