Capital of West Bengal, India / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Kolkata (UK: /kɒlˈkɑːtə/[11] or /kɒlˈkʌtə/,[12] US: /klˈkɑːtɑː/,[13] Bengali: [kolˈkata] , IAST: Kolkātā; also known as Calcutta /kælˈkʌtə/[12][13] which was the official name until 2001) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of West Bengal. It lies on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River, 80 km (50 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh. It is the primary financial and commercial center of eastern and northeastern India.[14] Kolkata is the seventh most populous city of India with an estimated city proper population of 4.5 million (0.45 crore).[15] It is the centre of the Kolkata Metropolitan Region, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world with a population of over 15 million (1.5 crore) residents. Kolkata is the de facto cultural capital of India and historically and culturally significant city in the historic region of Bengal.[1][16][17] It is the second largest Bengali-speaking city in the world. It has the highest number of Nobel laureates among all cities in India.

Quick facts: Kolkata KolkātāCalcutta, Country, State, ...
Interactive Map Outlining Kolkata
Kolkata is located in Kolkata
Location in Kolkata
Kolkata is located in West Bengal
Location in West Bengal
Kolkata is located in India
Location in India
Kolkata is located in Asia
Location in Asia
Kolkata is located in Earth
Location in Earth
Coordinates: 22°34′03″N 88°22′12″E
CountryFlag_of_India.svg India
StateWest Bengal
  TypeMunicipal Corporation
  BodyKolkata Municipal Corporation
  MayorFirhad Hakim
  Deputy MayorAtin Ghosh
  SheriffMani Shankar Mukherjee
  Police commissionerSoumen Mitra
  Megacity206.08 km2 (79.151 sq mi)
1,886.67 km2 (728.45 sq mi)
9 m (30 ft)
  MegacityDecrease 4,496,694
  MetroIncrease 14,112,536
14,617,882 (Extended UA)
  City rank
7th in India
  Metro rank
3rd in India;
2nd in Bengal Region;
13th in Asia;
16th in the world
  OfficialBengali  English[7]
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
700 xxx
Telephone code+91 33
Vehicle registrationWB-01 to WB-10
GDP$160.2 billion (2022)[8]
HDI (2004)0.780[9] (High)
International airportsNetaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport (CCU)
TransitRapid Transit: Kolkata Metro
Commuter rail: Kolkata Suburban Railway
Kolkata Tram
Urban Planning AuthorityKolkata Metropolitan Development Authority
Other namesCalcutta, Kolikata, Tilottama
Official nameDurga Puja in Kolkata
Designated2021 [10] (16th Committee of UNESCO for safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage)
Reference no.
RegionSouthern Asia
NotabilityFirst in Asia under "Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity" category

The three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690,[18] the area was developed by the Company into Fort William. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied the fort in 1756 but was defeated at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, after his general Mir Jafar mutinied in support of the Company, and was later made the Nawab for a brief time.[19] Under company and later crown rule, Calcutta served as the de facto capital of India until 1911. Calcutta was the second largest city in the British Empire, after London,[20] and was the center of bureaucracy, politics, law, education, science and the arts in India. The city was associated with many of the figures and movements of the Bengali Renaissance. It was the hotbed of the Indian nationalist movement.[21] The University of Calcutta and its affiliated colleges produced many leading figures of South Asia.

Kolkata's architecture includes many imperial landmarks, including the Victoria Memorial, Howrah Bridge and the Grand Hotel. The city's heritage includes India's only Chinatown and remnants of Jewish, Armenian, Greek and Anglo-Indian communities. The city is closely linked with Bhadralok culture and the Zamindars of Bengal, including Bengali Hindu, Bengali Muslim and tribal aristocrats. The partition of Bengal affected the fortunes of the city. In the late 20th century, the city hosted the government-in-exile of Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971;[22] it built India's first subway; and it was overtaken by Mumbai (formerly Bombay) as India's largest city. The Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port. The city is often regarded as India's cultural capital.

Following independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the premier centre of Indian commerce, culture, and politics, suffered many decades of political violence and economic stagnation before it rebounded.[23] The city was also flooded with Hindu refugees from East Bengal (present-day Bangladesh) in the decades following the 1947 partition of India, transforming its landscape and shaping its politics.[24][25] A demographically diverse city, the culture of Kolkata features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods (paras) and freestyle conversations (adda). Kolkata is home to venerable institutions of national importance, including the Academy of Fine Arts, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. It is the center of the Indian Bengali film industry, which is known as Tollywood. Among scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Horticultural Society, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Four Nobel laureates and two Nobel Memorial Prize winners are associated with the city.[26] Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata stands out in India for being the country's centre of association football. Kolkata is known for its grand celebrations of the Hindu festival of Durga Puja, which is recognized by UNESCO for its importance to world heritage.[27] Hence, Kolkata is also known as the 'City of Joy'.[28]

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