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Cologne

Largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Cologne (English: /kəˈln/ (listen) kə-LOHN; German: Köln [kœln] (listen); Kölsch: Kölle [ˈkœlə] (listen)) is the largest city of the German western state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the fourth-most populous city of Germany with 1.1 million inhabitants in the city proper and 3.6 million people in the urban region. Centered on the left (west) bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 35 km (22 mi) southeast of NRW's state capital Düsseldorf and 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Bonn, the former capital of West Germany.

Quick facts: Cologne Köln (German), Country, Sta...
Cologne
Köln (German)
From top; left to right: view of Cologne (with the Kranhäuser, Cologne Cathedral and Great St. Martin Church), Cologne Cathedral and Hohenzollern Bridge, Fischmarkt in the historic old town, decagon of St Gereon's Basilica, skyline with the towers of Cologne City Hall, Colonius, Great St Martin Church and the cathedral, "Flora" Botanical Garden, Basilica of St. Cunibert, view of the historic old town across the Rhine.
Cologne within North Rhine-Westphalia
Cologne
Cologne
Coordinates: 50°56′11″N 6°57′10″E
CountryGermany
StateNorth Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. regionCologne
DistrictUrban district
Founded38 BCE
Government
  Lord mayor (202025) Henriette Reker[1] (Ind.)
Area
  City405.15 km2 (156.43 sq mi)
Elevation
37 m (121 ft)
Population
 (2021-12-31)[2]
  City1,073,096
  Density2,600/km2 (6,900/sq mi)
  Urban
3,500,000 (Cologne Bonn)
  Metro
11,300,000 (Rhine-Ruhr)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
50441–51149
Dialling codes0221, 02203 (Porz)
Vehicle registrationK
Websitestadt-koeln.de
(in German)
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The city's medieval Catholic Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom), the third-tallest church and tallest cathedral in the world, constructed to house the Shrine of the Three Kings, is a globally recognized landmark and one of the most visited sights and pilgrimage destinations in Europe. The cityscape is further shaped by the Twelve Romanesque churches of Cologne, and Cologne is famous for Eau de Cologne, that has been produced in the city since 1709, and "cologne" has since come to be a generic term.

Cologne was founded and established in Germanic Ubii territory in the 1st century CE as the Roman Colonia Agrippina, hence its name.[3] Agrippina was later dropped (except in Latin), and Colonia became the name of the city in its own right, which developed into modern German as Köln. Cologne, the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. Cologne functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages the city flourished as being located on one of the most important major trade routes between east and western Europe (including the Brabant Road, Via Regia and Publica). Cologne was a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire and one of the major members of the trade union Hanseatic League. It was one of the largest European cities in medieval and renaissance times.

Prior to World War II, the city had undergone occupations by the French (1794–1815) and the British (1918–1926), and was part of Prussia beginning in 1815. Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II.[4] The bombing reduced the population by 93% mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire millennia-old city center. The post-war rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed cityscape, restoring only major historic landmarks like city gates and churches (31 of them being Romanesque).

Cologne is a major cultural center for the Rhineland; it hosts more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. There are many institutions of higher education, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities;[5] the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences; and the German Sport University Cologne. It hosts three Max Planck science institutes and is a major research hub for the aerospace industry, with the German Aerospace Center and the European Astronaut Centre headquarters. It also has significant chemical and automobile industry. Cologne Bonn Airport is a regional hub, the main airport for the region being Düsseldorf Airport. The Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows.