In distributed computing, a conflict-free replicated data type (CRDT) is a data structure that is replicated across multiple computers in a network, with the following features:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

  1. The application can update any replica independently, concurrently and without coordinating with other replicas.
  2. An algorithm (itself part of the data type) automatically resolves any inconsistencies that might occur.
  3. Although replicas may have different state at any particular point in time, they are guaranteed to eventually converge.

The CRDT concept was formally defined in 2011 by Marc Shapiro, Nuno PreguiƧa, Carlos Baquero and Marek Zawirski.[9] Development was initially motivated by collaborative text editing and mobile computing. CRDTs have also been used in online chat systems, online gambling, and in the SoundCloud audio distribution platform. The NoSQL distributed databases Redis, Riak and Cosmos DB have CRDT data types.

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