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Crown of Aragon

Composite monarchy (1164–1707) / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Crown of Aragon (UK: /ˈærəɡən/ ARR-ə-gən, US: /-ɡɒn/ -gon)[nb 1] was a composite monarchy[1] ruled by one king, originated by the dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona and ended as a consequence of the War of the Spanish Succession. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean empire which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388).

Quick facts: Crown of AragonCorona d'Aragón (Aragones...
Crown of Aragon
Corona d'Aragón (Aragonese)
Corona d'Aragó (Catalan)
Corona de Aragón (Spanish)
Corona Aragonum (Latin)
Diachronic map of the territories subject to the Crown of Aragon
Diachronic map of the territories subject to the Crown of Aragon
StatusComposite monarchy[1]
CapitalSee Capital below
Common languagesOfficial languages:
Catalan, Aragonese, Latin
Minority languages:
Occitan, Sardinian, Corsican, Neapolitan, Sicilian, Castilian, Basque,[2] Greek, Maltese, Andalusian Arabic, Mozarabic
Majority religion:
Roman Catholic (official)[3]
Minority religions:
Sunni Islam, Sephardic Judaism, Greek Orthodoxy
GovernmentFeudal monarchy subject to pacts
 1164-1196 (first)
Alfonso II
Ferdinand II
 1700–1707 (last)
Philip V
LegislatureCortz d'Aragón
Corts Catalanes
Corts Valencianes
Historical eraMiddle Ages / Early modern period
 Union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona
 Conquest of the Kingdom of Valencia
19 October 1469
1300[4]120,000 km2 (46,000 sq mi)
1 000 000
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Kingdom of Aragon
Blank.png County of Barcelona
Spanish Empire Flag_of_Cross_of_Burgundy.svg
Bourbon Spain Flag_of_Spain_%281760%E2%80%931785%29.svg
Kingdom of France Royal_Standard_of_the_King_of_France.svg
Council of Italy Coat_of_Arms_of_Philip_II_of_Spain_%281558-1580%29.svg
Sardinia under Austria Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy.svg
British Menorca Flag_of_Great_Britain_%281707%E2%80%931800%29.svg

The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king,[5] who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes, particularly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Majorca, and the Kingdom of Valencia. The larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name.

In 1479, a new dynastic union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains",[6] led to what would become the Spanish composite monarchy under Habsburg monarchs. The Aragonese Crown continued existing until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1707-1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.