Dzungar Khanate

1634–1755 Oirat Mongol khanate in Dzungaria / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Inner Asian khanate of Oirat Mongol origin. At its greatest extent, it covered an area from southern Siberia in the north to present-day Kyrgyzstan in the south, and from the Great Wall of China in the east to present-day Kazakhstan in the west. The core of the Dzungar Khanate is today part of northern Xinjiang, also called Dzungaria.

Quick facts: Dzungar Khanate, Status, Capital, Common ...
Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate in the early 18th century, and main contemporary polities[1][2]
StatusNomadic empire
Common languagesOirat, Chagatai[4]
Tibetan Buddhism
Khan or Khong Tayiji 
Erdeni Batur (first)
Galdan Boshugtu Khan
Tsewang Dorji Namjal
  • Customary rules
  • Mongol-Oirat Code of 1640
Historical eraEarly modern period
The first Russian record of Khara Khula
Galdan receives the title of Boshogtu khan from the 5th Dalai Lama
The Dzungar invasion of the Khalkha
Beginning of the Dzungar–Qing War, Battle of Ulan Butung
Qing army occupation of Dzungaria and genocide
1650[5]3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi)
Currencypūl (a red copper coin)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Four Oirats
Flag_of_Chagatai_Khanate.svg Chagatai Khanate
Blank.png Khoshut Khanate
Qing dynasty Blank.png
Quick facts: Dzungar Khanate, Chinese name, Traditional&nb...
Dzungar Khanate
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese準噶爾汗國
Simplified Chinese准噶尔汗国
Tibetan name
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicЗүүнгарын хаант улс
Mongolian scriptᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ
ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠣ
Uyghur name

About 1620 the western Mongols, known as the Oirats, united in Dzungaria. In 1678, Galdan received from the Dalai Lama the title of Boshogtu Khan, making the Dzungars the leading tribe within the Oirats. The Dzungar rulers used the title of Khong Tayiji, which translates into English as "crown prince".[7] Between 1680 and 1688, the Dzungars conquered the Tarim Basin, which is now southern Xinjiang, and defeated the Khalkha Mongols to the east. In 1696, Galdan was defeated by the Qing dynasty and lost Outer Mongolia. In 1717 the Dzungars conquered Tibet, but were driven out a year later by the Qing. In 1755, Qing China took advantage of a Dzungar civil war to conquer Dzungaria and destroyed the Dzungars as a people. The destruction of the Dzungars led to the Qing conquest of Mongolia, Tibet, and the creation of Xinjiang as a political administrative unit.