Gender dysphoria

Mental distress due to gender incongruence / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Gender dysphoria (GD) is the distress a person experiences due to a mismatch between their gender identitytheir personal sense of their own genderand their sex assigned at birth.[5][6] The term replaced the previous diagnostic label of gender identity disorder (GID) in 2013 with the release of the diagnostic manual DSM-5. The condition was renamed to remove the stigma associated with the term disorder.[7]

Quick facts: Gender dysphoria, Other names, Specialty, Sym...
Gender dysphoria
Other namesGender identity disorder
SpecialtyPsychiatry, psychology Edit this on Wikidata
SymptomsDistress related to one's assigned gender, sex, and/or sex characteristics[1][2][3]
ComplicationsEating disorders, suicide, depression, anxiety, social isolation[4]
Differential diagnosisVariance in gender identity or expression that is not distressing[1][3]
TreatmentTransitioning, psychotherapy[2][3]
MedicationHormones (e.g., androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens)

People with gender dysphoria commonly identify as transgender.[8] Gender nonconformity is not the same thing as gender dysphoria[9] and does not always lead to dysphoria or distress.[10]

The causes of gender incongruence are unknown but a gender identity likely reflects genetic, biological, environmental, and cultural factors.[11][12][13] Diagnosis can be given at any age, although gender dysphoria in children and adolescents may manifest differently than in adults.[14] Complications may include anxiety, depression, and eating disorders.[8] Treatment for gender dysphoria includes social transitioning and often includes hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and/or gender-affirming surgeries, and psychotherapy.[2][3]

Some researchers and transgender people argue for the declassification of the condition because they say the diagnosis pathologizes gender variance and reinforces the binary model of gender.[15] However, this declassification could carry implications for healthcare accessibility, as HRT and gender-affirming surgery could be deemed cosmetic by insurance providers, as opposed to medically necessary treatment, thereby affecting coverage.[16]

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