Gender dysphoria (GD) is the distress a person experiences due to a mismatch between their gender identity—their personal sense of their own gender—and their sex assigned at birth. The diagnostic label gender identity disorder (GID) was used until 2013 with the release of the diagnostic manual DSM-5. The condition was renamed to remove the stigma associated with the term disorder.
|Other names||Gender identity disorder|
|Symptoms||Distress related to one's assigned gender, sex, and/or sex characteristics|
|Complications||Eating disorders, suicide, depression, anxiety, social isolation|
|Differential diagnosis||Variance in gender identity or expression that is not distressing|
|Medication||Hormones (e.g., androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens)|
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People with gender dysphoria commonly identify as transgender. Gender nonconformity is not the same thing as gender dysphoria and does not always lead to dysphoria or distress. According to the American Psychiatric Association, not all transgender people experience dysphoria; the critical element of gender dysphoria is "clinically significant distress".
The causes of gender incongruence are unknown but a gender identity likely reflects genetic, biological, environmental, and cultural factors. Treatment for gender dysphoria may include supporting the individual's gender expression or their desire for hormone therapy or surgery. Treatment may also include counseling or psychotherapy.
Some researchers and transgender people support declassification of the condition because they say the diagnosis pathologizes gender variance and reinforces the binary model of gender. Without the classification of gender dysphoria as a medical disorder, HRT and gender affirming surgery may be viewed as cosmetic treatments by health insurance, as opposed to medically necessary treatment, and may not be covered.