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Genome

All genetic material of an organism / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is all the genetic information of an organism.[1] It consists of nucleotide sequences of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The nuclear genome includes protein-coding genes and non-coding genes, other functional regions of the genome such as regulatory sequences (see non-coding DNA), and often a substantial fraction of 'junk' DNA with no evident function.[2][3] Almost all eukaryotes have mitochondria and a small mitochondrial genome.[2] Algae and plants also contain chloroplasts with a chloroplast genome.

A label diagram explaining the different parts of a prokaryotic genome

An image of the 46 chromosomes making up the diploid genome of a human male. (The mitochondrial chromosome is not shown.)

The study of the genome is called genomics. The genomes of many organisms have been sequenced and various regions have been annotated. The International Human Genome Project reported the sequence of the genome for Homo sapiens in 2004 The Human Genome Project, although the initial "finished" sequence was missing 8% of the genome consisting mostly of repetitive sequences.

With advancements in technology that could handle sequencing of the many repetitive sequences found in human DNA that were not fully uncovered by the original Human Genome Project study, scientists reported the first end-to-end human genome sequence in March, 2022.[4]