Wikipedia key to pronunciation of Mandarin / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Mandarin pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-cmn}}, {{IPAc-cmn}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Standard Chinese phonology for more detail on the sounds of Mandarin Chinese.

Table info: Consonants, IPA, Pinyin, Wade–Giles, Bopomofo...
IPAPinyinWade–GilesBopomofoChinese exampleEnglish approximation
ɕ x hs Loudspeaker.svg晓/曉/xiǎo sheep,[lower-alpha 1] but more y-like
f f Loudspeaker.svg非/fēi fan
j y-/-i- Loudspeaker.svg牙/yá yes
k g k Loudspeaker.svg干/gān skin
k k' Loudspeaker.svg口/kǒu kin
l l Loudspeaker.svg来/來/lái leaf
m m Loudspeaker.svg明/míng moon
n n ㄋ,ㄣ,ㄢ Loudspeaker.svg泥/ní noon
ŋ -ng ㄥ,ㄤ Loudspeaker.svg江/jiāng song
p b p Loudspeaker.svg帮/幫/bāng span
p p' Loudspeaker.svg滂/páng pan
ʐ[lower-alpha 2] r- j Loudspeaker.svg日/rì pleasure, but with tongue curled or pulled back
s s Loudspeaker.svg私/sī same
ʂ sh Loudspeaker.svg矢/shǐ show, but without lip rounding and with tongue curled or pulled back
t d t Loudspeaker.svg端/duān stop
t t' Loudspeaker.svg透/tòu top
j ch Loudspeaker.svg叫/jiào cheap,[lower-alpha 1] but more y-like (without lip rounding)
tɕʰ q ch' Loudspeaker.svg去/qù Above, but with a strong burst of breath (aspiration)
ts z ts Loudspeaker.svg子/zǐ outset
tsʰ c ts' Loudspeaker.svg此/cǐ let's help
ʈʂ zh ch Loudspeaker.svg之/zhī cheer, but without lip rounding and with tongue curled or pulled back
ʈʂʰ ch ch' Loudspeaker.svg吃/chī Above, but with a strong burst of breath (aspiration)
w w-/-u- Loudspeaker.svg我/wǒ water
x h Loudspeaker.svg火/huǒ loch (Scottish English)
ɥ yu-/-ü-[lower-alpha 3] yü-/-ü- Loudspeaker.svg月/yuè between wet and yet
IPAPinyinWade–GilesBopomofoChinese exampleEnglish approximation
a a ㄚ,ㄢ,ㄤ 阿,安,盎 car
er êrh 二,兒(儿)
ɛ~æ yan/-ian yen/-ien ㄧㄢ set or sat
yuan/-üan ㄩㄢ
e ye/-ie, yue/-üe eh 也,月 hey
ə en,[lower-alpha 4] eng ên, êng ㄣ,ㄥ 本,冷 atop
ɚ er êrh 二,兒(儿) fern[lower-alpha 5]
ɤ e ê / o[lower-alpha 6] between boot and but
i yi/-i city
o wo/-uo[lower-alpha 7]/-ou o[lower-alpha 8] go, but without lip rounding
ɻ̩ zhi, chi, shi, ri ih [lower-alpha 9] 之,吃,師(师),日 Below, but with tongue curled or pulled back
ɹ̩ zi, ci, si ŭ 子,次,私 roses, cousin
u wu/-u cool
ʊ -ong -ung ㄨㄥ,ㄩㄥ 冬,用 book
y yu/-ü[lower-alpha 3] yü/-ü beet, but with the lips rounded as for boot
ai time
ao somewhat like out
ei[lower-alpha 4] face
ou[lower-alpha 4] 歐(欧) show
IPAPinyinWade–GilesBopomofoChinese exampleTone numberDescription
á ā a1 Loudspeaker.svg巴/bā tone 1 high level [˥]
ǎ á a2 ㄚˊ Loudspeaker.svg拔/bá tone 2 mid rising [˧˥]
à ǎ a3 ㄚˇ Loudspeaker.svg把/bǎ tone 3 medially, low [˩]; initially, mid falling [˧˩]; finally, low rising [˩˧]; in isolation, dipping [˧˩˧]
â à a4 ㄚˋ Loudspeaker.svg爸/bà tone 4 high falling [˥˩]
a a a0 ˙ㄚ Loudspeaker.svg吧/ba tone 0 or 5
mid [˧] after all tones but 4, where it is low [˩]
Note: Pinyin uses the same diacritics as IPA but with different values.