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Nomadic Iranian peoples of Saka and Scythian origin / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Scythian origin who migrated from Central Asia southward into modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northwestern India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.

Quick facts: Indo-Scythian Kingdom, Capital, Common l...
Indo-Scythian Kingdom
c. 150 BC–400 AD
Territories and expansion of the Indo-Scythians at their greatest extent, including territories of the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps.
Territories and expansion of the Indo-Scythians at their greatest extent, including territories of the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps.
Common languagesSaka,[1]
Pali (Kharoshthi script),
Prakrit (Brahmi script)
 85–60 BC
 10 AD
Historical eraAntiquity
c. 150 BC
400 AD
20 est.[3]2,600,000 km2 (1,000,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Greco-BactrianKingdomMap.jpg Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Map_of_the_Indo-Greeks.png Indo-Greek Kingdom
Maurya_Empire%2C_c.250_BCE_2.png Maurya Empire
Kushan Empire Kushan_Empire_%28highlighted%29.jpg
Sassanid Empire Derafsh_Kaviani_flag_of_the_late_Sassanid_Empire.svg
Indo-Parthians Map_of_the_Indo-Parthians.png
Paratarajas Blank.png
Gupta Empire Map_of_the_Gupta_Empire.png

The first Saka king of India was Maues/Moga (1st century BCE) who established Saka power in Gandhara, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and the Indus Valley. The Indo-Scythians extended their supremacy over north-western India, conquering the Indo-Greeks and other local kingdoms. The Indo-Scythians were apparently subjugated by the Kushan Empire, by either Kujula Kadphises or Kanishka.[4] Yet the Saka continued to govern as satrapies,[5] forming the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Indo-Scythians were defeated by the Satavahana emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni.[6][7] Indo-Scythian rule in the northwestern Indian subcontinent ceased when the last Western Satrap Rudrasimha III was defeated by the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II in 395 CE.[8][9]

The invasion of northern regions of the Indian subcontinent by Scythian tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the Indo-Scythian invasion, played a significant part in the history of the Indian subcontinent as well as of nearby countries. In fact, the Indo-Scythian war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with tribes such as the Xiongnu in the 2nd century CE, which had lasting effects on Bactria, Kabul, and the Indian subcontinent as well as far-off Rome in the west, and more nearby to the west in Parthia.

Ancient Roman historians, including Arrian[10] and Claudius Ptolemy, have mentioned that the ancient Sakas ("Sakai") were nomadic people.[11]

The first rulers of the Indo-Scythian Kingdom were Maues, c. 85–60 BCE, and Vonones, c. 75–65 BCE.[12]