Jumma people

Tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Jumma people (Bengali: জুম্ম জনগোষ্ঠী) is a term usually referred to the minority tribal group of people of the Chittagong Hill Tracts region of Bangladesh, who used to claim a separate state called Jummaland. They include the Chakma, Arakanese (Rakhine), Marma, Tripuri, Tanchangya, Chak, Pankho, Mru, Bawm, Lushai, Khyang, and Khumi.[1][2]

Members of Jumma militia in Khagrachari, 1994

The name Jumma ("jum farmer") is derived from jum cultivation, or the slash-and-burn method rain forest & razed hill farming .[3] They are also known as Pahari, which simply means "hill people".[4]

With the exception of the relatively well-integrated Chakma, Jumma people are native speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages, unrelated to the Bengali language spoken by ethnic Bengalis. They are religiously and culturally distinct as well, with most being Buddhist, some Hindu, and some are converted Christians and Muslims. In addition, they have retained some traditional religious practices.[5]