cover image

Kingdom of England

Kingdom on the British Isles from 927 to 1707 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dear Wikiwand AI, let's keep it short by simply answering these key questions:

Can you list the top facts and stats about Kingdom of England?

Summarize this article for a 10 years old


The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1 May 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, and England is now part of the United Kingdom. The Kingdom of England was among the most powerful states in Europe during the medieval and early modern colonial periods.

Quick facts: Kingdom of England, Capital, Common lang...
Kingdom of England
(1649–1660: Commonwealth)
Motto: "Dieu et mon droit" (French)
"God and my right"[1]
Location of the Kingdom 1558–1707 (green)
Location of the Kingdom 1558–1707 (green)
Common languages
Roman Catholicism (927–1534; 1553–1558)
Church of England (1534–1553; 1558–1646; 1660–1707)[3]
Puritanism (1646–1660)
 927–939 (first)
 1702–1707 (last)
House of Lords
House of Commons
12 July 927
14 October 1066
May 1169
15 June 1215
24 March 1603
11 December 1688
1 May 1707
CurrencyPound sterling
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Wessex
Blank.png Dumnonia
Blank.png Mercia
Blank.png East Anglia
Blank.png Northumbria
Blank.png Welsh Marches
Blank.png Principality of Wales
Great Britain Flag_of_Great_Britain_%281707%E2%80%931800%29.svg
Principality of Wales Banner_of_Llywelyn_%28Square%29.svg
Today part of
  1. ^ Monarch of Wessex from 925.
  2. ^ Continued as monarch of Great Britain until her death in 1714.

On 12 July 927, the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan (reigned in 927–939) to form the Kingdom of England. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England, Denmark and Norway. The Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, and the City of London quickly established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre.[4]

Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1707 (interrupted by the Interregnum of 1649–1660). Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 ultimately claim descent from the Normans; the distinction of the Plantagenets is merely conventional, beginning with Henry II (reigned 1154–1189) as from that time, the Angevin kings became "more English in nature"; the houses of Lancaster and York are both Plantagenet cadet branches, the Tudor dynasty claimed descent from Edward III via John Beaufort and James VI and I of the House of Stuart claimed descent from Henry VII via Margaret Tudor.

The completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown. Edward III (reigned 1327–1377) transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe; his reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament. From the 1340s the kings of England also laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, and his daughter Elizabeth I (reigned 1558–1603) the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World.

From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland. Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament. This concept became legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy.[lower-alpha 6] On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.[5][6]