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Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Country in southeastern Europe, 1918–1941 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian: Kraljevina Jugoslavija / Краљевина Југославија;[8] Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941. From 1918 to 1929, it was officially called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Serbo-Croatian: Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca / Краљевина Срба, Хрвата и Словенаца; Slovene: Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev), but the term "Yugoslavia" (literally "Land of South Slavs") was its colloquial name due to its origins.[9] The official name of the state was changed to "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" by King Alexander I on 3 October 1929.[9]

Quick facts: Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes .mw-par...
Kingdom of Serbs,
Croats and Slovenes
Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca
Краљевина Срба, Хрвата и Словенаца
Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev

Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kraljevina Jugoslavija
Краљевина Југославија
Motto: Jedan narod, jedan kralj, jedna država  
Један народ, један краљ, једна држава  
"One People, One King, One State"
Anthem: Himna Kraljevine Jugoslavije
Химна Краљевине Југославије
"National Anthem of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia"
Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1930
Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1930
and largest city
44°48′N 20°28′E
Official languagesSerbo-Croato-Slovene[a][1][2]
Common languages
Peter I
Alexander I
Peter II[b]
Prince Regent 
Prince Alexander
Prince Paul
Prime Minister 
 1918–1919 (first)
Stojan Protić
 1941 (last)
Dušan Simović
LegislatureProvisional Representation
National Assembly[c]
(since 1931)
Chamber of Deputies
(since 1931)
Historical eraInterwar period  World War II
1 December 1918
28 June 1921
6 January 1929
3 September 1931
9 October 1934
 Sporazum in Croatia
25 August 1939
 Joined the Axis
25 March 1941
27 March 1941
6 April 1941
April 1941
29 November 1945
1941[3]247,542 km2 (95,577 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag_of_Serbia_%281882%E2%80%931918%29.svg Kingdom of Serbia
Flag_of_the_State_of_Slovenes%2C_Croats_and_Serbs.svg State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Flag_of_Hungary_%281915-1918%2C_1919-1946%29.svg Kingdom of Hungary (portion)
Flag_of_Italy_%281861-1946%29_crowned.svg Kingdom of Italy (portion)
Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg Kingdom of Bulgaria (portion)
German-occupied Serbia Flag_of_Germany_%281935%E2%80%931945%29.svg
Italian governorate of Montenegro Flag_of_Montenegro_%281905%E2%80%931918%2C_1941%E2%80%931944%29.svg
Independent State of Croatia Flag_of_Croatia_%281941%E2%80%931945%29.svg
Kingdom of Italy Flag_of_Italy_%281861-1946%29_crowned.svg
Kingdom of Bulgaria Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg
Kingdom of Hungary Flag_of_Hungary_%281915-1918%2C_1919-1946%29.svg
Italian protectorate of Albania Flag_of_Albania_%281939%E2%80%931943%29.svg
Nazi Germany Flag_of_Germany_%281935%E2%80%931945%29.svg
  1. ^ Serbo-Croatian and Slovene are separate languages, but that was not officially accepted or universally acknowledged at the time, and 'Serbo-Croato-Slovene' was declared the single official language (srbsko-hrvatsko-slovenački or srbsko-hrvatsko-slovenski; also translated "Serbocroatoslovenian"). In practice it functioned as Serbo-Croatian.[6][7]
  2. ^ Peter II, still underage, was declared an adult by a military coup. Shortly after his assumption of royal authority, Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis and the young King went into exile. In 1944, he accepted the formation of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. He was deposed by the Yugoslav parliament in 1945.
  3. ^ Unicameral until 1931.

The preliminary kingdom was formed in 1918 by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austria-Hungary, encompassing today's Bosnia and Herzegovina and most of today's Croatia and Slovenia) and Banat, Bačka and Baranja (that had been part of the Kingdom of Hungary within Austria-Hungary) with the formerly independent Kingdom of Serbia. In the same year, the Kingdom of Montenegro also proclaimed its unification with Serbia, whereas the regions of Kosovo and Vardar Macedonia had become parts of Serbia prior to the unification.[10]

The state was ruled by the Serbian dynasty of Karađorđević, which previously ruled the Kingdom of Serbia under Peter I from 1903 (after the May Coup) onward. Peter I became the first king of Yugoslavia until his death in 1921. He was succeeded by his son Alexander I, who had been regent for his father. He was known as "Alexander the Unifier" and he renamed the kingdom "Yugoslavia" in 1929. He was assassinated in Marseille by Vlado Chernozemski, a member of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), during his visit to France in 1934. The crown passed to his 11-year-old son, Peter. Alexander's cousin Paul ruled as Prince regent until 1941, when Peter II came of age.[11] The royal family flew to London the same year, prior to the country being invaded by the Axis powers.

In April 1941, the country was occupied and partitioned by the Axis powers. A royal government-in-exile, recognized by the United Kingdom and, later, by all the Allies, was established in London. In 1944, after pressure from the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the King recognized the government of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia as the legitimate government. This was established on 2 November following the signing of the Treaty of Vis by Ivan Šubašić (on behalf of the Kingdom) and Josip Broz Tito (on behalf of the Yugoslav Partisans).[12]